1 - 1. Organization design involves the creation of roles,...

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1. Organization design involves the creation of roles, processes, and formal reporting relationships in an organization. One can distinguish between two phases in an organization design process: Strategic grouping, which establishes the overall structure of the organization, (its main sub-units and their relationships), and operational design, which defines the more detailed roles and processes. The field is mainly practice-driven and many consulting firms offer organization design assistance to managers. However, there is also a substantial academic literature. The most frequently cited book is still Thompson (1967); other key works include Galbraith (1973) and It is important to distinguish between organization design and organization theory. The latter is a descriptive discipline, mainly focusing on describing and understanding organizational functioning. Organization design is (as the name suggests) a more normative, design-oriented discipline that aims to produce the frameworks and tools required to create effective organizations. 2. Organizational culture is an idea in the field of Organizational studies and management which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and Values (personal and cultural values)of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization." This definition continues to explain organizational values also known as "beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals. From organizational values develop organizational norms, guidelines or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behavior by employees in particular situations and control the behavior of organizational members towards one another." Organizational culture is not the same as corporate culture. It is wider and deeper concepts, something that an organization 'is' rather than what it 'has' (according to Buchanan and Huczynski) Corporate culture is the total sum of the values, customs, traditions and meanings that make a company unique. Corporate culture is often called "the character of an organization" since it embodies the vision of the company’s founders. The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation, as well as managerial behavior. Senior management may try to determine a corporate culture. They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization. In addition, there will also be an extant internal culture within the workforce. Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which, to an extent, affect the whole system. Roger Harrison's four-culture typology, and adapted
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1 - 1. Organization design involves the creation of roles,...

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