Nov 10 slides - Motivation in social psych jargon: the...

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“Motivation” in social psych jargon: the systematic influence of our desires, goals, and feelings on our cognition and behavior (motivation is not : Tony Robbins) THE MOTIVATION VS. COGNITION DEBATE Although there may be an intuitive motivational explanation for many phenomena, there is often a competing cognitive explanation that does not involve any motivation.
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Often a cognitive explanation is based on expectancies . Would Mr. Spock reach the same conclusion? Q. HOW DOES MOTIVATION INFLUENCE OUR BEHAVIOR? A. BY SYSTEMATICALLY INFLUENCING OUR COGNITION. Motivation Cognition Behavior 1. Motivated memory search We often don’t realize that our search in memory is not as objective or systematic as it could be (e.g., confirmation bias, hindsight bias). 2. Creating a (plausible) theory to support your conclusion We often don’t realize that the theory we concoct to support our conclusion could also support the opposite conclusion.
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Example: 1.informed subjects that a given trait (randomly varied: extraversion or introversion) is associated with academic and professional success. (In other words, experimenters instilled motivation to possess that trait). 2.asked to list memories of past behaviors that reflected their standing on the introversion- extraversion dimension. Results: Kunda (1987) Subjects were: one group who, in childhood, had mothers who had worked (a job) vs. a second group whose mothers had not worked. Subjects asked which type of mother (working vs. nonworking) would more likely lead to children who are happily married. Results :
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The eternal balance: self-enhancement vs. “reality constraints” How do we accomplish the task of boosting ourselves without being delusional? Dunning and colleagues: we take advantage of ambiguity in the world. Dunning found that people rated themselves as extraordinary on ambiguous traits (like “sensitive” and “idealistic”), but more honestly on unambiguous traits like “punctual.” 3. Playing fast and loose with inferential rules. Doosje et al. (1995): 1. ½ subjects given desirable info (their group is more prosocial than a rival group) or ½ undesirable info (less prosocial). 2. ½ told this info based on a small sample, ½ told info based on a large sample. Results: Desirable info Undesirable info Large sample Small sample
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NEED FOR CLOSURE Kruglanski and colleagues: reaching cognitive closure, just simply finishing the task, can often be a goal in its own right. Situational variables that increase need for closure:
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2009 for the course EAS 120Y1 taught by Professor Ajimoro during the Spring '09 term at University of Toronto.

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Nov 10 slides - Motivation in social psych jargon: the...

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