Lecture 1 notes- Introduction to the science and history of Psychology

Lecture 1 notes- Introduction to the science and history of Psychology

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Sept 9 Introduction to the science and history of Psychology Modules 1- 3 1. Psychology’s roots Psychology : the scientific study of behaviour and mental process. Behaviour : is anything an organism does – any action we can observe and record, yelling, smiling, blinking etc. Metal process : the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behaviours – sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs and feelings 2. Pre-scientific Psychology Early thinkers wondered: how do our minds work? How do our bodies relate to our minds? From India – Buddha pondered how sensations and perceptions combines to form ideas China- Confucius stressed the powers of ideas and of an educated mind Israel – Hebrew scholars anticipated today’s psychology by linking mind and emotion to the body; they said to think with their hearts and feel with their bowels. (Mind and body are the same) Greece - Socrates and Plato -the mind and body are distinct. As the body dies the mind continues. -knowledge is innate-born within us Aristotle – ideas derived from logic -ideas base on observations -knowledge is acquired from experience and stored in memory Advance’s Ventricular Hypothesis: -believed in a localization of function proposal: different ventricular were responsible from: Common-sense, Cognition and Memory Rene Descartes: -agreed with Socrates and Plate about the existence of innate ideas and the mind being “entirely distinct from the body” and is able to survive after death - Theory: the immaterial mind is connected to the body by “animal spirits” Franz Joseph Gall and Phrenology shaped and curvature of a person’s skull reveals mental faculties and character trails -extreme localization of function -believed that the analysis of the skill, shape and curves would indicate a person’s personality and nature John Lock: -wrote an essay on “our own ability” -Wrote “An essay concerning human understanding” which argued that the mind at birth is blank state- a white paper and which experience writes This helped from modern empiricism. Empiricism : the view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experience.
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Sept 9 Vs. Nativism : learning is based on innate predisposition - exp. Still mattered. All is nature 3. Psychological Science Psychology – how does the mind and body interact? -Physiology – Wilhelm Wundt- developed first lab -Philosophy – influences of the ancient ideas of the mind and body Schools of Thought: Structuralism – an early school of psych. That used introspection to explore the elemental structures of the human mind. -Required individuals who were capable of reporting their experiences – training them to report elements of their experiences as they looked, listened, smelled, saw and felt Draw backs: training required accurate recollection- free of subjective (opinion or feeling rather than evidence) experiences. Functionalism
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2009 for the course PSYCHOLOGY PSYCH 101 taught by Professor R.ennis during the Spring '09 term at Waterloo.

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Lecture 1 notes- Introduction to the science and history of Psychology

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