Lecture 3 notes - Developing through the Lifespan

Lecture 3 notes - Developing through the Lifespan - Lecture...

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Lecture three: Module 8-11 Module 8: Prenatal development and the newborn 8.2 Conception: (refer to slides for picture of development) Sperm + Egg = fertilized Egg (Zygote) Zygote: conception to 2 weeks Embryo: 2 weeks through 8 weeks Fetus: 8 weeks till birth Prenatal Development: fewer than half of all fertilized eggs, called zygotes, survive beyond the first two weeks. Mitotic division occurs and cells begin to differentiate. Teratogens : agents such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development can cause harm Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): physical and cognitive abnormalities in children cause by pregnant woman’s drinking 8.4 The competent Newborn Rooting reflex : a baby’s tendency when touched on the cheek to turn towards the tough and search for a nipple. Moro reflex : startle response to loud noise, sudden movement; arches back, throws head backwards and flings out arms and legs Grasping Reflex : 3months, whenever something touches the palms, the infant instantly gasps it tightly Module 9 9.1 Brain Development Biological development underlies their psychological developments. To understand development the brain must be understood Biological development – Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behaviour, relatively uninfluenced by experience. Physical: the brain At birth almost all the neurons we will ever have are present: active synapses remain strong, inactive synapses can disappear (42%) Critical period: certain experiences are necessary for proper development Visual CP – must be exposed all types of visual information or visual neurons will be “pruned” Importance of exposure to different types of stimuli in infants: Mobiles, other stimulating toys 9.2 Motor development The developing brain enables physical coordination. The biological maturation includes rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain. Without the maturation the behaviour is impossible.
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Sequences of motor development are universal: roll-crawl-walk-run. Variability is in the time. 9.5 Cognitive development Cognition : all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating. Jean Piaget ideas about children:
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Lecture 3 notes - Developing through the Lifespan - Lecture...

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