Lecture 4. Sensation_and_Perception-101-ACE-B_W

Lecture 4. Sensation_and_Perception-101-ACE-B_W - Last Week...

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Last Week… c How do newborns, children, teens and older adults differ in terms of their development? r Physically, Cognitively and Socially? c What major milestones are accomplished during each of these stages? c What should be of concern during each of these stages?
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SENSATION SENSATION AND AND PERCEPTION PERCEPTION Modules 12 to 17 Vision, Hearing, Touch, Taste, Smell Organization & Interpretation of Perceptions
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Today’s Overview c How do we sense and perceive our environments? r How do we visually process stimuli? r How do we hear things happen in our world? r What other senses play a role? - TEXT c How do we organize our sensations? r Perception of form, depth and motion c How can our senses play tricks on us?
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A Few Key Concepts: Sensation versus Perception SENSATION Translation of physical energy from the environment to neural signals • Entry-level processing, based entirely on sensory input PERCEPTION Interpretation of that sensory information • Experiences can play a role Bottom – Up Processing Top – Down Processing
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A Few Key Concepts: Psychophysics & Thresholds c Psychophysics r Relationship between the physical characteristics of the stimuli and our psychological experience r What can we detect? How intense does it have to be? How sensitive are we? c True or False: On a clear, dark night, we can see a single candle flicker up to 30 miles away? c Absolute Threshold r Minimum stimulation necessary to detect a stimulus 50% of the time
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Difference Thresholds c We must be able to detect small differences in our world Add one candle c Likelihood of noticing this difference is about 100%
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Difference Thresholds c We must be able to detect small differences in our world c Likelihood of detecting this difference is drastically reduced
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Weber’s Law c Its not about the amount of a stimulus that is added / taken away r Its about the proportion c In order to notice a difference: the two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion r Lighting – 8% r Object Weight – 2% r Sound frequency – 0.3%
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c Detection is not only about the stimulus - it is also about our psychological state r Hits – you correctly detect a target/change r Misses – you fail to detect a target/change r False alarms – you report a target/change when one was not present c Factors affecting detection r Alertness (more sensitive when alert) r Expectation (more sensitive when we expect it) r Familiarity (more sensitive when familiar) r Motivation (more sensitive when motivated) Signal Detection Theory
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Considering the Implications c Compare expected Hits, Misses and False Alarms r Air Traffic controller after September 11, 2001 r Truck driver on a busy highway after driving for 12 hours r Mom waiting for her daughter’s first smile r A research testing his own difference threshold
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Selective Attention c Our awareness of events is limited at any one time r Can only focus our beam of attention on aspects of our environment c ‘Cocktail Party Effect’ r Focused listening on only one voice at a time
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2009 for the course PSYCHOLOGY PSYCH 101 taught by Professor R.ennis during the Spring '09 term at Waterloo.

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Lecture 4. Sensation_and_Perception-101-ACE-B_W - Last Week...

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