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Lecture 6. Learning_and_Personality_-_Color_-_ACE

Lecture 6. Learning_and_Personality_-_Color_-_ACE - Todays...

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Today’s Overview square6 Learning ring2 Classical Conditioning ring2 Operant Conditioning ring2 Learning by Observation square6 Personality ring2 The Psychoanalytic Perspective ring2 The Humanistic Perspective
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Learning Learning Module 21 – Classical Conditioning Module 22 – Operant Conditioning Module 23 – Learning by Observation
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Defining Learning square6 Learning – a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. square6 How do we learn? ring2 By Association… ring2 Learning by Observation square6 Learn from the behaviors and experiences of others.
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Association and Conditioning Classical Conditioning Two stimuli occur together (can opener = food) Operant Conditioning Relationship between behaviour & consequence Doing Chores = Allowance (reward) Associative Learning Certain events occur together
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Classical Conditioning square6 Ivan Pavlov, MD ring2 Nobel prizes on digestion BUT Best known for “Pavlov’s Dogs”
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Pavlov’s Experiment Paradigm Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Unconditioned Response (UR)
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Pavlov’s Experiment Paradigm US UR Neutral Stimulus No Response
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Pavlov’s Experiment Paradigm Neutral Stimulus No Response US UR Unconditioned Response (UR) Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Neutral Stimulus
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Pavlov’s Experiment Paradigm Neutral Stimulus US UR Neutral Stimulus No Response US UR Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Response
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Pavlov’s Experiment Paradigm Neutral Stimulus US UR Neutral Stimulus No Response US UR Conditioned Stimulus (CR) Conditioned Response (CR)
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Classical Conditioning: 4 Elements ring2 Unconditioned stimulus (US) square6 A stimulus that naturally elicits a response ring2 Unconditioned response (UR) square6 The natural response to a stimulus ring2 Conditioned stimulus (CS) aka…Neutral Stimulus square6 An originally neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairing, will eventually elicit a response ring2 Conditioned response (CR) square6 A learned response to a previously neutral stimulus square6 NOTE: The CR and the UR are the SAME BEHAVIOUR
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Examples from Everyday: ADVERTISING
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Examples from Everyday: TASTE AVERSION square6 Thinking about hamburger (CS) elicits no bad response square6 Eating a hamburger w/ E.Coli (US) elicits vomiting (UR) square6 After pairing ring2 Even the thought of eating a hamburger (CS) elicits nausea / vomiting (CR) square6 NOTE: the CR and the UR are the SAME BEHAVIOUR ring2 Thought of a hamburger = conditioned stimulus ring2 E.Coli in food = unconditioned stimulus ring2 Nausea / vomiting square6 Unconditioned response when in response to US square6 Conditioned response when in response to CS
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Laws of Association square6 Intensity ring2 The strength of any association depends on the vividness of the stimuli used square6 Contiguity or Timing ring2 Events that occur at roughly the same time are associated ring2 BUT the conditioned stimulus MUST occur before the unconditioned stimulus ring2 The CS must predict the US for learning to occur
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Extinction If the bell (?) is presented repeatedly without food (?), it will eventually stop eliciting the conditioned response.
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