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Unformatted text preview: Social Psychology Social
Week Nine – Psych 101 Modules 55 – 58 Last Week Last
What does it mean to pay attention?
No definition – understanding comes from James’ quote Types of attention
Must focus on one or a few things – not everything Filter Theory, Attenuation Theory Divided Attention
Any time you attend to more than one thing at a time Dual-Task Paradigm Automaticity and Effects of Practice on Attention
Practice can help and hurt performance
Stroop Task, SART, Slips of Action This Week’s Overview This
Module 55 – Social Thinking
How do we explain what and why other people do what they do? How do we form our beliefs and attitudes? What’s the relationship between what we believe & what we do? Module 56 – Social Influence
What ties us together socially? Module 57 – Anti-Social Relations
What makes us harm others? Module 58 – Pro-Social Relations
What makes us fall in love? What makes us compassionate? Social Psychology Social
The scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another. Social Psychologists study the social influences that help describe why we act differently in different situations. Module Module 55 Social Thinking Social
How do we explain other’s behaviors? How do we form our attitudes and beliefs? What is the relationship between what we believe and what we do? Attribution Attribution
How do we explain other’s behaviors? How We describe other’s behaviors either in terms of their internal dispositions (stable) or to their external situations internal external (varying). Fundamental Attribution Error
Overestimate the influence of internal dispositions (personality) and underestimate the influence of situations. Fundamental Attribution Error Fundamental
Overestimate the influence of internal dispositions (personality) and underestimate the influence of situations. Sarah is encouraged to act extraverted on her blind date even though she is very much an introvert.
Her date later reports that she must be a really outgoing person When her date is told about the FAE – he doesn’t believe that it impacted his perception of his date. Implications??
US Election… Effects of Attribution Effects Effects of Attribution Effects
Conservatives – attributed social problems to the personal dispositions of the poor and unemployed
“People generally get what they deserve…” “They don’t have enough initiative to get ahead…” Liberals – more likely to blame the situation
“Would you really do any better if you were in their shoes?” Attitudes Attitudes and Actions
How do we form our beliefs and attitudes? How Attitudes are feelings, based on beliefs, the predispose our reactions to people and events.
“Change the way people think and things will never be the same” – Steve Biko BEHAVIOR SOCIAL PRESSURES SITUATIONS ATTITUDES Attitudes and Actions Attitudes
Tendency for people who first agree to a small request will later comply with a larger request. Implications – bad habits, temptations, fund-raising… Study implications VIDEO VIDEO – Zimbardo Prison Study – coax people to violate their
moral standards and beliefs. Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive
Why do our behaviors influence our attitudes?
When we become aware that our attitudes and actions do not align, we experience tension – cognitive dissonance. In an effort to find consistency between our behaviors and beliefs, we alter our beliefs. “If I am supporting it / doing it – I must believe it…” Examples??
Iraq War – reasons for going to war changed when weapons were not found… Others?? Attitudes and Actions Attitudes
“ Assume a virtue, If you have it or not.” - Shakespeare in Hamlet
Evil acts shape the self, But so do acts of good will.”
- Myers “Sit all day in a moping posture, sigh and reply to everything with a dismal voice, and your sadness lingers. If we wish to conquer our undesirable emotional tendencies, we must go through the outward movements of the disposition that we wish to cultivate.”
- William James Changing our behaviors can change how we think about others and how we feel about ourselves.
Implications? Module 56 Module Social Influence
What ties us together socially? Social Influence Social
The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are molded by social influence. Conformity & Obedience Conformity
Behavior is contagious
Modeled by one, followed by another Laughing, yawning, feeling sick… Conformity – adjusting our own thinking and behavior so that it coincides/follows the thinking and behavior of others Comply … Obedience – We follow the directions of others. Conformity Obedience The Chameleon Effect The
Humans naturally mimic each other
Helps us empathize with others Helps us fit in… those who fit in best intuitively know to mimic others in a group Chartrand Study
Participants mimicked the behavior of the experimenter significantly. Group Pressure & Conformity Group
Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity
We end up adjusting our responses and behaviors so that they fit in with the standard of the group. Asch’s Studies of Conformity…
More than 1/3 of the time, “willing to call white black” to agree with the group. Reasons for Conformity Reasons
Normative Social Influence
Results from a person’s desire to gain approval We follow the social norms – approved rules for behavior – because it can be costly not to
Jail, Ostracism, Teasing… Sometimes is pays to assume that the group knows something we don’t – in which case, it makes sense to follow along … Informational Social Influence
Especially important in new situations… Example – Test Yourselves questions… Strengthening Conformity Strengthening
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. One is made to feel incompetent or insecure. The group has at least three people. The group is unanimous. One admires the group’s status and attractiveness. One has no prior commitment to response. The group observes one’s behavior. One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standard.
Western cultures have significantly lower rates of conformity. Obedience Obedience
We know that people conform to social pressures…
But how do they respond to outright commands from authority figures? Stanley Milgram’s studies on effects of authority on obedience. VIDEO VIDEO Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) Milgram’s Study Milgram’s Milgram’s Study: Results Milgram’s Strengthening Obedience Strengthening
Perceive the authority figure as legitimate. Have authority figure in close proximity. Allocate some aspect of prestige and respect to the authority figure. Depersonalize the victim – have in another room… Include no role models for defiance. Implications??
Holocaust war, artillery soldiers, air assaults… Closer to home examples? Lessons Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies and
Participants in Milgram and Asch studies had to choose between their personal feelings and the responses of others. Demonstrates how strong social influences can cause us to believe lies and perform reprehensible acts.
In Milgram’s study Capitalized on the Foot-in-the-Door phenomenon… Power of Individuals Power
The power of social influence is enormous but so is the power of the individual. Non-violent fasts and appeals by Gandhi led to the independence of India from the British. Gandhi Module 57 Module Anti-Social Relations
What makes us harm & think poorly about each other? Social Relations Social
Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one another
From a positive perspective … Pro-Social
Attraction, Altruism, Peacemaking, Compassion From a negative perspective… Anti-Social
Prejudice, Aggression, Conflict Prejudice Prejudice
An unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a attitude group and its members
Often cultural, ethnic, gender or sexual orientation groups A pre-judgement Components of Prejudice Beliefs Beliefs - stereotypes
Emotion – hostility, anger, fear Predisposition to Act / Behave - discriminate Act Pervasiveness of Prejudice Pervasiveness
Prejudice works at the conscious and [more so] the unconscious level.
Like a knee-jerk response more than a conscious decision. VIDEO - IAT VIDEO How Prejudiced are People? How
Over time many prejudices against interracial marriage, gender, homosexuality, minorities have waned. But it is still a major part of our world! Racial & Gender Prejudice Racial
North Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist… Look at this years’ Presidential Election!! Pervasiveness of Prejudice Pervasiveness
9/10 white respondents were slow at responding to words like “peace” or “paradise” when they saw a black individual’s photo compared to a whites (Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003). Gender
Poverty Missing women - about 100,000,000 Sex-Selection - preference for male children in China and India, even with sex-selected abortion outlawed. Gender Gender – Recent Research
Although prejudice prevails against women, more people feel more positively toward “women” than “men.” Women rated picture b [feminized] higher for a matrimonial ad
(Perrett, 1998). Social Roots of Prejudice Social
1. Social Inequalities
Influence of money, power and prestige… 2. Social Divisions
In-group: People with whom one shares a common identity. Out-group: Those perceived as different from one’s in-group. In-group Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own group. 3. Emotional Scapegoating
Prejudice provides an outlet for emotion by providing someone to blame… lashing out against innocent ArabAmericans post 9/11… innocent Japanese post Pearl Harbour Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Cognitive
1. Just-World Phenomenon
Tendency of people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. 2. Vivid Cases
Following horrible events, our vivid recollections can feed stereotypes or prejudices
Example – 9/11… Most terrorists are non-Muslims. Video and Discussion Video
Mississippi Burning While watching, keep in mind:
How is social influence (conformity/obedience) impacting behavior? What is a prejudice, discrimination and stereotype? How are they being portrayed in the film? How are the social and cognitive roots of prejudice involved? Can you use this roots of prejudice to suggest reasons for the KKK’s behavior? Social Influence Social
Conformity Obedience Term Portrayals in Film Term
Stereotype Prejudice Discrimination Social Roots to Prejudice Social
Social Inequalities Social Divisions Emotional Scapegoating Cognitive Roots to Prejudice Cognitive
Just-World Phenomenon Vivid Cases Module 58 Module Pro-Social Relations
What makes us fall in love? What makes us compassionate? Psychology of Attraction Psychology
What Makes us Fall in Love?
1. Proximity: Geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship. Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction (mere exposure effect). A rare white penguin born in zoo was accepted after 3 weeks by other penguins just due to proximity. Psychology of Attraction Psychology
2. Physical Attractiveness: Once proximity affords contact the next most important thing in attraction is physical appearance. Psychology of Attraction Psychology
3. Similarity: Having similar views between individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen. In terms of physical attractiveness, we also choose mate that are similar to ourselves.
If you are an 8, you will often pick a 8 as a partner. Love Love
Passionate Love – aroused state of intense positive Passionate
feelings about another
Usually present at the beginning of a loving relationship “Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder.” “Love makes the time pass, and time makes the love pass” Companionate Love – deep affectionate attachment felt Companionate
for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
Takes time to develop Making Love Last… Making
Passionate love dissipates quickly
“If people appreciated this, more people might choose to be satisfied with the quieter feelings of satisfaction and contentment.” Non-Western cultures, love is less important for marriage have lower divorce rates. Equity – you receive from a relationship what you put into it. Equity
Important for ALL social relationships. Self-Disclosure – revealing intimate details about ourselves Self SelfParticipants who disclosed personal information felt closer to their partner than those who didn’t Peacemaking Peacemaking
Proximity of Feuding Groups – helpful?
Developing shared goals that override differences and require cooperation help! … Superordinate Goals Superordinate Parent Organizations, Team sports… Helps people define new in-groups.
Surpass cultural or gender divides. Encourage international trade and cooperation to help foster bonds between feuding countries.
Might the global economic crisis have social benefits? Peacemaking Peacemaking
Conciliation – required when communication and cooperation Conciliation
are no longer options.
When war or surrender appear to be the only choices. GRIT GRIT Strategy – Graduated & Reciprocal Initiatives in Tension-Reduction
Strategy designed to decrease international tensions. One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act which opens the door for reciprocation from the other side. Effective strategy for encouraging trust and cooperation Implications Closer to Home?? Must Know from the Lecture… Must
Module 55 – Social Thinking
Attribution & Fundamental Attribution Error What’s an attitude & How do they reciprocate with actions?
Foot in the Door Phenomenon Cognitive Dissonance Zimbardo’s Prison Study Module 56 – Social Influence
What is the Chameleon Effect? Conformity
Asch’s and Milgram’s Studies Normative and Informative Social Influence & Conditions that Strengthen Conformity Must Know from the Lecture… Must
Module 57 – Anti-Social Relations
What are the components of prejudice? Social and Cognitive Roots of prejudice Module 58 – Pro-Social Relations
What are the influences on attraction? What predicts compassionate love? How can we encourage people to get along? What about in high conflict situations? Must Know From the Text… Must
Group Influence – Pg. 741-745 Module 57
Aggression – Pg. 753-760
Omit - Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence – Pg. 759-760 Module 58
Altruism – Pg. 771-774 ...
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