CR16 - M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e S le e p a n d M e m...

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Unformatted text preview: M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e S le e p a n d M e m r o y Sara C. Mednick, Ph.D. Department of Psychiatry School of Medicine University of California, San Diego www.t akeanap.info March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 1 Road Map of Today’s Talk B a s ic s o f S le e p a n d M e m o ry Invite you to the NAP-IN! NAPLAND COFFEE NEXT EXIT C r e a tiv ity March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 2 S ta g e s o f N IG H T T IM E s le e p E a rly N ig h t M o re S W S S le e p M id -n ig h t c y c le Equal SW S & REM M o rn in g M o re R E M S le e p 9 0 m in u te s le e p c y c le Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor March 4, 2009 3 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e S ta g e s o f D A Y T IM E s le e p M o rn in g N a p s M o re R E M S le e p M id d a y N a p s Equal SW S & REM E v e n in g N a p s M o re S W S S le e p 9 0 m in u te s le e p c y c le March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 4 C a te g o r iz a tio n o f m e m o r y s y s te m s (Schacter & Tulving, 1994) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 5 S le e p a n d M e m o r y V is u a l , Motor, V e rba l March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 6 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e Fixation March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 7 Targets March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 8 Blank ISI March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 9 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e Mask March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 10 M e th o d s o f T e x tu r e D is c r im in a tio n T a s k ! Threshold = ISI at 80% correct ! Learning = decrease in threshold ISI across sessions Fixation task 100% aha1 % correct 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0 100 200 300 400 Fixation Peripheral task Threshold Accuracy March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor ISI (ms) 11 V is u a l L e a r n in g Im p r o v e s w ith S l e e p , n o t t i m e ( S tic k g o ld e t a l, 1 9 9 8 ) ! Each point is a difference score between baseline and retest. ! Performance improves only after a period of sleep. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 12 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e S le e p D e p r iv a tio n b lo c k s le a r n in g ! Sleep deprive subjects right after training blocks learning. ! But, more nights of sleep between training and test increases learning. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 13 S le e p s ta g e s a n d le a r n in g ! Learning is correlated with SWS from first part of night. ! Learning is also correlated with REM from last part of the night. ! Learning is correlated with SWS X REM March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 14 In te r im S u m m a r y 1 ! Perceptual learning requires sleep between training and test. ! Nocturnal sleep-dependent learning requires SWS from first part of the night and REM sleep from the second par of the night. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 15 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e W h y a re N a p s a g o o d m o d e l fo r s le e p ? ! They are manageable. ! The sleep parameters can be controlled. ! Operational feasibility as fatigue countermeasure ! A trainable skill ! No pharmacology necessary March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 16 M e th o d s ! Subjects – Ages 18-35 – Matched for Education and Sex – Normal Chronotype – Mentally and Physically healthy – Moderate caffeine users, but no other stimulants ! No Caffeine or Alcohol night before or day of the study. ! Actigraphy 7 days prior to test day. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 17 E x p e r im e n ta l T im e lin e NAP 9 :0 0 1 2 :0 0 1 3 :0 0 3 0 m in NAP 1 5 :0 0 1 6 :0 0 1 9 :0 0 N o -N A P 6 0 m in NAP March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 18 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e V is u a l M e m o r y March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 19 In te r im S u m m a r y 2 ! Repeated testing causes perceptual deterioration. ! Naps rich in SWS produce perceptual maintenance. ! Prior nocturnal sleep-dependent learning requires both SWS and REM. ! Can we find nap-dependent learning by adding REM sleep in a 90min nap? Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor March 4, 2009 20 E x p e r im e n ta l T im e lin e NAP 9 :0 0 1 2 :0 0 1 3 :0 0 1 5 :0 0 1 6 :0 0 1 9 :0 0 N o -N A P 6 0 m in NAP 9 0 m in NAP March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 21 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e N a p - d e p e n d e n t le a r n in g 15 ISI Changes from Baseline (ms) No Nap SWS Only SWS +REM 6 0 m in 9 0 m in March 4, 2009 March 4, 2009 ! Naps with SWS and REM produce perceptual learning. ! Nap-dependent learning is equal to learning from a full night of sleep. ! Naps and Nighttime sleep are additive for memory consolidation. ! What about other memory domains? Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor March 4, 2009 D e c r e a s in g P e r f o r m a n c e 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 (Mednick et al, Nature Neuroscience, 2003) Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 22 Nap as good as a n ig h t o f s le e p Day 3 9AM 48hr C o n tr o l Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 23 In te r im S u m m a r y 3 24 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e O th e r M e m o r y D o m a in s ! M o to r L e a r n in g • i.e. typing, playing musical instrument March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 25 F in g e r ta p p in g ta s k ! Subjects use nondominant hand to type out sequence as quickly and accurately as possible. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 26 M o to r L e a r n in g o n ly s h o w n a fte r n i g h t o f s l e e p (W a lk e r e t a l, 2 0 0 2 ) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 27 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e S le e p S ta g e s a n d m o to r le a r n in g ! Motor learning is correlated with %Stage 2 – A: across the night – B: In the last quarter of the night March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 28 N a p s & M o to r L e a r n in g (N is h id a & W a lk e r, 2 0 0 7 ) (W a lk e r e t a l N e u ro n 2 0 0 2 ) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 29 O th e r M e m o r y D o m a in s ! D e c la r a tiv e V e r b a l M e m o r y • i.e. names of people or places, phone numbers, language learning March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 30 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e ( P lih a l & B o rn , 1 9 9 7 ) D e c la r a tiv e m e m o r y a n d S W S ! Declarative memory test: paired associates verbal memory test ! Procedural memory test: Mirror Tracing ! Subjects woken after first half of night (SWS-rich sleep) and retested on declarative test ! Or ! Subjects kept awake through first half of night and retested after morning (REM-rich sleep) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 31 ( P lih a l & B o rn , 1 9 9 7 ) D e c la r a tiv e m e m o r y a n d S W S March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 32 N a p s fo r V e r b a l M e m o r y (Tucker et al Neubiol L earn M em 2 006) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 33 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e V e r b a l m e m o r y a fte r 2 5 m in n a p O. L ahl e t al, J of Sleep, 2008 March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 34 V e r b a l m e m o r y a fte r 6 m in n a p O. L ahl e t al, J of Sleep, 2008 March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 35 S u m m a r y o f S le e p /N a p R e s u lts S ta g e 2 P e r c e p tu a l D e te r io r a tio n P e r c e p tu a l L e a rn in g M o to r M e m o ry V e rb a l M e m o ry SW S REM ! H o w c a n w e fin d s le e p - s ta g e d e p e n d e n t le a r n in g fr o m s u c h a s h o r t s le e p p e r io d ? March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 36 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e T h e N a p H y p o th e s is ! SWS, REM and Stage 2 facilitate and enhance separate memory functions. ! Experimental Naps occur between 1-3pm. ! Naps during 1-3pm have equal amount of SWS and REM, whereas morning naps have more REM and evening naps have more SWS. ! The “Perfect Nap” (i.e. 1-3pm) consolidates the benefits of a full night of sleep into a single cycle. ! Napping schedules can be optimized to enhance selective performance outcomes. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 37 A s s o c ia tiv e m e m o r y a n d C r e a tiv ity ! We have examined perception, declarative and motor memory. ! Each of these memory domains are are separable by the underlying brain region that is specifically designed to regulate this process. – Perception: visual cortex – Motor: Motor cortex – Verbal: hippocampus ! What about more complex associative memory that allow for creative problem solving? March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 38 Friedrich A. Kekule – Discovery of the Friedrich Benzene Structure I was sitting writing in my notebook, but the work did not progress; my thoughts were elsewhere. I turned my chair toward the fire, fell asleep and dreamed of atoms gamboling before my eyes. This time the smaller groups kept modestly in the background. My mental eye, rendered more acute by the repeated sequences, could now distinguish larger structures of manifold conformation; long rows sometimes more closely fitted together all twining and twisting in snake-like motion. But look! What was that? One of the snakes had seized hold of its own tail, and the form whirled mockingly before my eyes. As if by a flash of lightning I awoke. And this time also I spent the rest of the night in working out the consequences of the hypothesis. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 39 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e O v e r v ie w ! Creativity (Mednick ,1962): The forming of associative elements into new combinations which either meet specified requirements or are in some way useful. ! Process of creative problem solving involves: – Period of active work on problem I was sitting writing in my notebook, but the work did not progress – Offline period e.g. incubation or time I turned my chair toward the fire, fell asleep and dreamed of atoms – “Eureka” moment arrives whilst not focused on the problem As if by a flash of lightning I awoke. And this time also I spent the rest of the night in working out the consequences of the hypothesis. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 40 A r o le fo r S le e p in In s ig h t Compared to wake, sleep increases insight into hidden abstract rule in Number Reduction Task (Wagner et al. 2004). March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 41 S le e p a n d c r e a t iv it y Semantic priming of weak associations is greater following awakenings from REM sleep than NREM sleep (Stickgold et al. 1999). March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 42 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e S tu d y A im ! We ask whether creative problem solving is enhanced by sleep (naps) during the “incubation” period? ! How does prior exposure to the problem influence post-nap performance? 1. No exposure 2. Repeated exposure 3. Primed exposure ! Does REM sleep play a role? March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 43 S tu d y T im e lin e ! At 10AM, baseline levels were assessed on creativity task followed by implicit word priming task. ! 1 – 3 PM, period of nap or relaxation ! At 6PM, tested – No Exposure items – Repeated Exposure items – Primed items March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 44 M a te r ia ls ! Remote Associates Test (RAT): paper and pencil task (Mednick 1962). ! 30 word triplets ! Subjects combine or relate the three words to find a fourth word that could serve as an associative link. ! Test time: 40 minutes. ! Score: Difference score of correct PM items from baseline ! Priming task: 30 Analogies March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 45 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e P r a c tic e T r ia ls ! RAT: ! Answer: Cookies Sixteen Heart Sweet ! Cookies are sweet ! Sweet sixteen ! Sweetheart ! Analogy: ! Answer: March 4, 2009 chips : salty as candy : s______ sweet Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 46 N o E x p o s u r e R A T ite m s (p=.64, two-tailed) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 47 R e p e a te d R A T ite m s (p=.85, two-tailed) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 48 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e P r im e d R A T ite m s (p=.03, two-tailed) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 49 P r im e d : N o - N a p , N R E M , R E M (F = 4.82, p = .01) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 50 S u m m a ry ! Naps were not helpful for general problem solving on new items. ! Incubation or Time increased problem solving for previously exposed items, not specific to sleep condition. ! Napping enhanced creative problem solving for answers that were primed prior to sleep. ! This was only true for naps with REM sleep. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 51 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e C o n c lu s io n s ! First study to show that REM leads to enhancement in creative problem solving, compared to NREM and wake. ! Prior theories of creative problem solving: – Fixation forgetting – Subconscious work – Spreading activation of the associative network ! Present priming results are consistent with sleep enhancing associative network. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 52 W h a t a b o u t c a ffe in e ? ! Caffeine – Used by ~90% of North Americans daily – But it’s cognitive benefits are mixed; some evidence of decreases. ! How do naps and caffeine compare on memory tasks? March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 53 E x p e r im e n ta l T im e lin e V e r b a l L is t 1 T r a in V e r b a l L is t 1 T e s t V is u a l T a s k T e s t 1 5 :0 0 DRUG 1 6 :0 0 V is u a l T a s k T r a in M o t o r T a s k T r a in V e r b a l L is t 2 T r a in M o to r T a s k T e s t V e r b a l L is t 2 T e s t 1 8 :0 0 54 NAP 9 :0 0 1 3 :0 0 DARPA funded study March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e V e rb a l M e m o ry 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 Thcalltoisd1 7lhsDelayu e L t o i r t yo Re w r o te th is m o r n in g … * * # Words Recalled T h e in tr o o f th is ta lk ! Recall List 2 20min Delay 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 * * # Words Recalled Placebo Nap Caffeine Placebo Nap Caffeine (Mednick et al. Behavioral Brain Research 2008) Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor March 4, 2009 55 M o to r M e m o r y * (Mednick et al. Behavioral Brain Research 2008) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 56 V is u a l M e m o r y * (Mednick et al. Behavioral Brain Research 2008) March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 57 M e d n ic k N a p L e c tu r e S u m m a ry ! C a ffe in e w o r s e th a n n a p p in g fo r v e r b a l a n d m o to r m e m o ry (b a d n e w s fo r S ta rb u c k s ) ! D e c r e a s e s m a y b e r e la te d to th e d e g r e e o f e x p lic it m e m o r y ( i.e . h ip p o c a m p a l in v o lv e m e n t) in e a c h ta s k . ! C a ffe in e in c r e a s e s A C H in h ip p o c a m p u s , w h ic h m a y b lo c k e x p lic it m e m o r y c o n s o lid a tio n . ! P e r c e iv e d b e n e fits fr o m c a ffe in e m a y b e d u e to e lim in a tio n o f w ith d r a w a l s y m p to m s , n o t a c tu a l c o g n itiv e e n h a n c e m e n t. March 4, 2009 Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor 58 F a m o u s N a p p e rs March 4, 2009 Take A Nap! Change Your LiAes…ant Professor fs ist Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Sara Mednick, PhD 59 C o m e t o t h e N A P - IN ! ! 10p 9p 8p 7p 6p 5p 4p le e p ve s 11p 12 1a 2a 3a 4a 5a wak e up time March 9th, 2009 (day after daylight savings) 12:30: I give talk 1-3pm: Take a Nap! Price Center Ballroom C 60 -w a s lo w 6a 7a 8a e m ep 1p 12n 11a 2 3p s le s le 9a st ag 2p March 4, 2009 re 10a Sara C. Mednick UCSD, Assistant Professor ep ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2009 for the course BIMM 116 taught by Professor Brody during the Winter '09 term at UCSD.

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