Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Neurodevelopment BIPN 144 Lecture 2 Professor...

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Neurodevelopment BIPN 144 Lecture 2 Professor Yishi Jin 2418 Bonner Hall Office Hours - Tu 9-11 am Last time: Overview of course Basic concepts in neurobiology and molecular biology Gastrulation -> generation of germ layers Neural induction: ectoderm differentiates into epidermis and neural tissue Spemann-Mangold transplantation experiments, Isolation of neural inducers neural is default state of ectoderm “neural is default state of ectoderm” Figure 1.21 --Neural fate is actively suppressed by cellular associations in the ectoderm. --a secreted protein BMP4 induces epidermis Secreted factors trigger signal transduction cascades from cell surface to transcription regulation. -BMP binds membrane receptors, leading to activation of kinase activities of the receptors, which then phosphorylates and promotes the formation of a protein complex called Smad -Smad complex moves into nucleus and binds to DNA -> regulates transcription of genes Box -- page 19-20
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Neural inducers: inhibitors of epidermal induction BMP BMP-R epidermis Noggin, Chordin or, Follistatin binds BMP to prevent its binding to BMP-R neuronal BMP -- is a secreted protein and act as an epidermal inducer -neural inducers block BMP signaling in epidermal cells, leading to neural fate Conservation in neurulation Wild type +/+ noggin-/- noggin-/- chordin-/- --”neural inducer” molecules are conserved --inhibiting the function of these molecules causes lack of neural tissues in mouse Morphogens--molecules that encode positional information A morphogen provides spatial information by forming a concentration gradient. A morphogen induces expression of different target genes at distinct concentration thresholds. – Cells far from the source of the morphogen receive low levels of morphogen and express only low-threshold target genes. – Cells close to the source of morphogen receive high levels of
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Lecture 2 - Neurodevelopment BIPN 144 Lecture 2 Professor...

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