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Final Review notes

Final Review notes - Chapter 8 THE DEVELOPING SELF The...

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Chapter 8 THE DEVELOPING SELF The Self-Concept and Cognitive Development Self-concept: Sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits. Total image of ourselves Cognitive construction: A system of descriptive and evaluative representations about the self. Changes in Self-Definition: The 5 to 7 Shift Self-definition: Cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself. Single representations: In neo-Piagetian terminology, first stage in development of self-definition, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual, unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms. Real self: The self one actually is. Ideal self: The self one would like to be. Representational mappings: In neo-Piagetian terminology, second stage in development of self-definition, in which a child makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms. Representational systems: In neo-Piagetian terminology, third stage in development of self-definition, in which a child begins to integrate specific features of the self into a general, multidimensional concept and to articulate a sense of self-worth. Cultural Differences in Self-Description Self-Esteem Self-esteem: The judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth. Bases on kid’s growing cognitive ability to describe and define themselves Understanding and Regulating Emotions Contributes it kid’s social competence, their ability to get along with others Helps them guide their behavior and talk about feelings Enables them to control the way they show their feelings and to be sensitive to how others feel Affects types of play they engage in Emotions Directed Toward the Self Simultaneous Emotions Erikson: Initiative Versus Guilt Initiative versus guilt: Erikson’s third crisis in psychosocial development, in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with moral reservations that may prevent carrying them out. Conflict: arises from the growing sense of purpose, which spurs a chold to plan and carry out activities, and the growing pangs of conscience the child may have about such plans Marks a split between 2 parts of the personality: the child and the part the is becoming the adult
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Kids who learn how to regulate these opposing drives develop virtue of purpose Purpose: In Erikson’s third crisis, the courage to envision and pursue goals without being unduly inhibited by guilt or fear of punishment. GENDER Gender identity: Awareness, developed in early childhood, that one is male or female. Gender Differences Gender differences: Psychological or behavioral differences between males and females.
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