Class notes exam 1

Class notes exam 1 - All living things are made of cells • The fundamental unit of life • Membrane enclosed • Propagate themselves •

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Unformatted text preview: 8/20/07 All living things are made of cells • The fundamental unit of life • Membrane enclosed • Propagate themselves • Solitary to multi-cellular life • Generate diversities and communities • Communications • Study of cells: understanding of life – the structure, function, and evolution of life Cells are diverse • Size • Shape • Chemical requirement • Unicellular vs. multi-cellular • Functions • All cells share a basic chemistry: the central dogma • DNA and RNA : 4 bases in nucleotide-making genes • Protein: no amino acids • Minerals and water – basic cofactors and solutes • Why viruses not living cells? No propagation of themselves Cells are evolving – originated from a common ancestor • Why all living matter contains the same principle and chemistry? • Frequent errors (mutations) during reproduction • Correction of problems • Making a better fit, neutral, or worse fit (eventually elimination) • Evolution occurred over very very long period of time The fundamental of all: genes • Provides the blue prints for shape, behavior, and something you can only imagine • Genome: a set of genes, DNA • DNA molecule: a genetic program that directs the cell how to live as they should be • Information comes from linear molecule: DNA, RNA, and proteins – all info is recorded in the genome, even contain the record of evolution Cells are not easy to see through your eyes • Are microscopic: visual understanding is the beginning of studying cell • Light microscope was invented: Robert Hooke – 1665, the first guy who called it “cell” – however, microscope was an expensive toy for awhile • Schleiden and Schwann in 19 th century: systematic use of microscope for cell biology research – with the similar work of others; cells are the universal building blocks of living things – cell theory • What did Louis Parteur do? Cells are generated from pre-existing cells and inherit their characteristics from the pre-existing ones Light (optical) microscopy • Resolve as small as .2 microns o Bright light; light sources o Prepared specimen • Appropriate set of lenses – eyepiece and objective • Fluorescence microscope – to probe specific structures in the cell using specific dye or antibodies. Special devices (filters) for light sources and lenses needed • Confocal microscopy – a fancy fluorescence microscope – uses laser light source • Living cells – non-fixed cells – phase contrast and differential interface contrast • Fixed cells – dead cells – regular microscopy – modification possible 3 dyes • DAPI = good for staining DNA • FITC = absorb blue, emits green • Rhodeanine = absorb green, emit red 8/22/07 Electron microscopy • Use electrons for a light source • Transmission EM – sectioning of tissue stained with heavy metals to give a strong contrast, see as small as 2 nanometers • Scanning EM – electrons bombard the surface of specimen, which is coated with metal...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course BIO 3342 taught by Professor Myeongwoolee during the Fall '07 term at Baylor.

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Class notes exam 1 - All living things are made of cells • The fundamental unit of life • Membrane enclosed • Propagate themselves •

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