Chapter 7 notes

Chapter 7 notes - Chapter 7 notes From DNA to protein: how...

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Chapter 7 notes From DNA to protein: how cells read the genome Proteins are the principal constituents of cells and determine not only their structure but also their functions DNA does not have direct protein synthesis itself DNA → RNA → protein – central dogma From DNA to RNA Transcription and translation are the means by which cells read out, or express their genetic instructions – genes Genes can be expressed with different efficiencies Portions of DNA sequence are transcribed into RNA RNA is a linear polymer made of 4 different types of nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds RNA is single stranded Due to this it can fold into a variety of shapes DNA cannot fold b/c of the double helix The ability to fold into a complex 3-D shape allows RNA to carry out functions in cells in addition to conveying information between DNA and protein RNA comes in different varieties, some having structural and even catalytic functions Transcription produces RNA complementary to one strand of DNA All of the RNA in a cell is made by transcription Transcription begins with the opening and unwinding of a small portion of the DNA double helix then acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA Ribonucleotides are added one by one, to the growing RNA chain
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Chapter 7 notes - Chapter 7 notes From DNA to protein: how...

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