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Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide A...

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Final Exam Study Guide A. Introductory Information: Fossils: definition, what is or is not a fossil: o Holocene – not fossil, recent o Wasp nest, oysters with pearls, worm burrows, dinosaur tracks fossils o Recognizable, unaltered remains or traces, plants or animals, naturally preserved in the earths crust o Fossils are recognizable, remains or traces, prehistoric life, organisms, or preservations in the earth’s crust (feces, stomach stones, foot prints, nests…) o Prehistoric – old enough (geologic materials) o Needs to have been once living (invertebrates for our case) o Natural preservation, no replicas! Trace fossils internal/external molds, casts, etc: o Internal molds: shows features of creature on inside of shell o External mold shows outside shell features o Something caught in mud, or something else o Tracks are left by things with feet o Trails are left by things without feet o Borings occur in hard material o Burrows occur in soft material o Both can be for food or habitation o Others – coprolites – shit o Gastroliths – stomach stones o Eggs and nests Species definitions: o Know morpho, crono, geographic, biologic species
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o Morpho species most commonly used o Chronospecies - from a different time period o Geologic species – from a different area o Morphospecies, biospecies (capable of reproduction), chronospecies, geographic species, splitters and lumpers, cladistics General classification: kingdom to species: o Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus ICZN o international code of zoological nomenclature Environments: where are the most fossils preserved? o most likely to find organisms preserved in shallow water, marine, and continental shelf o Marine and shallow marine littoral zone Adaptation to environment: how to be successful: o Variable environment: survival found in form that are adaptive to life in variable environments o Lingulids prefer variable environments o Eury (broadly adapted) vs. steno (narrowly adapted) o Environmental controls Physical controls – temperature, water depth, density, movement, turbidity Chemical controls – salinity, oxygen amount, carbon dioxide amount Biological controls – food availability, space availability, sex partners Paleoecology: paleoautoecology vs. paleosynecology o Paleoecology – relationship of organisms to their environment o Paleoautoecology – looks at the individual animal o Paleosynecology – looks at the individuals as a community (entire community) B. Protoctista: Classification based on locomotion o Phylum Sarcodina – have locomotion (pseudopodia) Foraminfera – Pre? Cam - recent o phylum, class, order phylum Sarcodina, class rhizopoda, order foraminifera o classification to suborder level
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Organic – Allogromiina Organic walled test Most primitive Stressed environments Simple shapes PC? C – R Agglutinated – Textularia C – R Picks up fine sand off bottom, glues together to make test Unicerial/biserial
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