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Unformatted text preview: 36. 40. 44. 48. 50.
58. 68. 70. 72. 76. 86. 96. 12.
30. 32. 40Ca2+ CHAPTER 7—8 CHAPTER 7 and 20Ne+ would be similar. The exact masses are not 40 and 20, so the ratios would not
be exact. 1.2 x 108 miles 5.8x 10nm yellow 3.75 x 10-19J The red light has less energy than the green 530 nm light. Energy increases as wavelength decreases and frequency increases. 9.97 x 10-4 kJ /mol
246 nm; ultraviolet region a. b. 434.1 nm 102.6 nm Thirdshellhas I=0, 1,2 l=2isd Ifn=4,l =o,1,2,3.
Ifl=1,m[=-1,0, 1. 9" 9’99?!” 9"?” Fret-mp? armor->9 53‘?!” If] = 1, m1 cannot be 2; m1 cannot be greater than I. permissible
permissible correct, I can be 3 d subshell no maybe+l or-l
’ 2 2 no, may be 3 or 4 no, may be 3 or 4 yes no, can exist. 1.08 x 105 mol photons
2.52 min CHAPTER 8 b. 8 c. 7 d. 3 e. 2 Allowed, this is the orbital diagram of sodium. Not allowed. The 2s electrons have the same spin and there are three
electrons in one of the 2p orbitals. Allowed. Not allowed. The unpaired electrons are not all of the same spin. Not allowed. There should be one electron in each 3p orbital. Allowed, this is the orbital diagram of phosphous. The 3s subshell ﬁlls before any electron goes into the 3p subshell. The 4s subshell ﬁlls before 3d subshell begins to ﬁll. ' i.ﬂm_,, ‘ 34. 38. 44. 48. 50. 54. 60. c. The 3d subshell ﬁlls completely (ten electrons) before 4p subshell begins to ﬁll.
a. The subshell that ﬁlls after [Ar] is 43. 2d does not exist. b. The subshell that ﬁlls aﬁer [Ar] 4s2 is 3d. 3f does not exist. c. The subshell that ﬁlls after [Kr] 4d105s2 is 5p. 4f ﬁlls after 63. a. Ga [Ar] 3d104s24p1 b. Te [Kr] 4d105s25p4 c. I [Kr] 401105525115 d. Cs [Xe] 6s1 e. Sb [Kr] 4d1°5s25p3 f. Sr [Kr] 5s2 a. Ga3+ [Arilﬂmlﬂl CED
b. V3+ [AHEIDEIEID lj 4d ss 517
c. I' [Kr] IE IE or [Xe]
4f 5d 6s 617
d.3pb2+ b[X1e] @@[email protected] IE g. 32 (cesium, barium, thallium, lead, bismuth, polonium, astatine, radon,
lanthanum through mercury and the lanthanides.) a. Ra2+ [Rn] all paired diamagnetic
b. I‘ [Xe] all paired diamagnetic
c. Sn2+ [Kr]4d105s05po all paired e‘ diamagnetic
d. O [He]2s22px22pysz Zunpaired e' paramagnetic
e. Co odd atomic number paramagnetic a. Ca < Sr < Rb Strontium has one more shell of electrons than calcium. It has one more electron and proton than rubidium, so it is smaller. Atomic radius increases from top to bottom in
a group of elements and from right to left in a period of elements. b. C < Si < A1 Silicon has one more shell of electrons than carbon, so is larger. Silicon has one more electron and proton than aluminum, so is smaller. Atomic radius increases from top to
bottom in a group of elements and from right to leﬁ in a period of elements. a. Ca is to the leﬁ of As so is larger in size and [Ca < 1A5. The hard choice is Ca and Na. The ionization energy increases to the right but decreases down. But the decrease down is less than the
increase to the right, so Ica > INa. Na < Ca < As
b. Sn is to the left and below As which is to the leﬁ and below S. Sn<As<S c. Kr is a noble gas with a high 1. Ba is to the left and below Sc (about the same as Ca), which is
to the left of Zn, which is to the left and below of Al. Br is much more to the right than it is
below A1 so thatIBr>IA1. Ba < Sc <Zn <Al <Br<Kr (Actually because Zn is in the transition elements, Zn > A1 and Se will also be greater because of
the A1 dip due to a ﬁlled subshell)
Actual Ba < Al < Sc < Zn < Br < Kr78. 78. 114 [Rn] 5f146d107s27p2 86. Mg (g) ——> Mg+ (g) + e' 738 kJ
Mg“ (g) —> M” (g) + e' 1451 kJ
2 Cl (g) + 2e- -> 2 Cl- (3) 2(- 349) kJ Mg (g) + 2 Cl (g) —-—> Mg2+ (g) + 2 Cl' (g) 1491 kl endothermic ...
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