Test 1 Study Guide

Test 1 Study Guide - Test 1 Study Guide 1. Introduction: A....

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Unformatted text preview: Test 1 Study Guide 1. Introduction: A. Definition of a fossil: Fossils are recognizable, remains or traces, prehistoric life, organisms, or preservations in the earths crust (feces, stomach stones, foot prints, nests) Prehistoric old enough (geologic materials) Needs to have been once living (invertebrates for our case) Natural preservation, no replicas! B. Factors favoring preservation: Rapid burial time Hard parts C. Types of preservation: Unaltered soft parts frozen things, tree sap/amber, Jurassic park Unaltered hard parts calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, silica, apatite Altered hard parts carbonization, distillation, impression Permineralization petrification (addition of material) Recrystallization (no mother of pearl luster) sugary texture (same composition) Replacement where shell starts with different composition minerals change composition o If proceeds slowly, preserves minute details, faster not so much Trace fossils casts and molds external molds o Something caught in mud, or something else o Tracks are left by things with feet o Trails are left by things without feet o Borings occur in hard material o Burrows occur in soft material o Both can be for food or habitation o Others coprolites shit o Gastroliths stomach stones o Eggs and nests D. Types of species used in geology and biology Morphospecies, biospecies (capable of reproduction), chronospecies, geographic species, splitters and lumpers, cladistics E. Classification according to the ICZN: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus F. Kingdoms: Animalia Plantae Protoctista Monera Fungi G. Fundamental principle of paleocology: Environment restrictions on distribution H. Terms used for different life styles and habitats: Terrestrial land and fresh water Transitional Marine habitats o Littoral continental shelf environments, 0 200 m Supratidal Intertidal Subtidal o Bathyal continental slope and rise, 200 2000 m o Abyssal abyssal plain, 2000 5000 m o Hadal trench, > 5000 m Marine waters o Neritic over shelf o Pelagic open ocean o Photic zone Life habits o Planktic floaters o Nektic swimmers o Benthic bottom dwellers Sessile immobile creatures Motile (vagile) animals capable of locomotion Epifaunal live on top of the sediment that carpets the seafloor...
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Test 1 Study Guide - Test 1 Study Guide 1. Introduction: A....

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