Test 1 Study Guide

Test 1 Study Guide - Test 1 Study Guide 1 Introduction A...

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Unformatted text preview: Test 1 Study Guide 1. Introduction: A. Definition of a fossil: • Fossils are recognizable, remains or traces, prehistoric life, organisms, or preservations in the earth’s crust (feces, stomach stones, foot prints, nests…) • Prehistoric – old enough (geologic materials) • Needs to have been once living (invertebrates for our case) • Natural preservation, no replicas! B. Factors favoring preservation: • Rapid burial time • Hard parts C. Types of preservation: • Unaltered soft parts – frozen things, tree sap/amber, “Jurassic park” • Unaltered hard parts – calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, silica, apatite • Altered hard parts – carbonization, distillation, impression • Permineralization – petrification (addition of material) • Recrystallization – (no mother of pearl luster) sugary texture (same composition) • Replacement – where shell starts with different composition → minerals change composition o If proceeds slowly, preserves minute details, faster not so much • Trace fossils – casts and molds – external molds o Something caught in mud, or something else o Tracks are left by things with feet o Trails are left by things without feet o Borings occur in hard material o Burrows occur in soft material o Both can be for food or habitation o Others – coprolites – shit o Gastroliths – stomach stones o Eggs and nests D. Types of species used in geology and biology • Morphospecies, biospecies (capable of reproduction), chronospecies, geographic species, splitters and lumpers, cladistics E. Classification according to the ICZN: • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus F. Kingdoms: • Animalia • Plantae • Protoctista • Monera • Fungi G. Fundamental principle of paleocology: • Environment restrictions on distribution H. Terms used for different life styles and habitats: • Terrestrial – land and fresh water • Transitional • Marine habitats o Littoral – continental shelf environments, 0 – 200 m Supratidal Intertidal Subtidal o Bathyal – continental slope and rise, 200 – 2000 m o Abyssal – abyssal plain, 2000 – 5000 m o Hadal – trench, > 5000 m • Marine waters o Neritic – over shelf o Pelagic – open ocean o Photic zone • Life habits o Planktic – floaters o Nektic – swimmers o Benthic – bottom dwellers Sessile – immobile creatures Motile – (vagile) animals capable of locomotion Epifaunal – live on top of the sediment that carpets the seafloor...
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Test 1 Study Guide - Test 1 Study Guide 1 Introduction A...

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