Ch5_slides_and_notes

Ch5_slides_and_notes - Anxiety Disorders 1 2 The Nature of...

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1 Anxiety Disorders
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2
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3 The Nature of Anxiety Disorders Fear is an innate alarm response to a dangerous or life-threatening situation. Anxiety is the state in which an individual is inordinately apprehensive, tense, and uneasy about the prospect of something terrible happening. People with anxiety disorders are incapacitated by chronic and intense feelings of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are characterized by the experience of physiological arousal, apprehension or feelings of dread, hypervigilance, avoidance, and sometimes a specific fear or phobia.
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4 Panic Disorder Frequent and Recurrent Panic Attacks Constant Worry and Apprehension About Possible Panic Attacks or Unexpected (Uncued) Attacks Situationally Bound (Cued) Attack Situationally Predisposed Attack •People with panic disorder experience frequent and recurrent panic attacks , periods of intense fear and physical discomfort, in which they feel overwhelmed and terrified by a range of bodily sensations that causes them to feel they are losing control. •For panic disorder to be diagnosed in an individual, at least some of the person’s panic attacks must arise “out of the blue,” meaning that there is no situational cue or trigger. Such an attack is called an unexpected (uncued) panic attack . Situationally bound (or cued) panic attacks: An individual may experience a panic attack immediately following exposure to a specific stimulus or cue in the environment. •When the person has a tendency to have a panic attack in a particular situation but does not have one every time, the episode is referred to as a situationally predisposed panic attack .
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5 Panic Disorder Panic disorder is often associated with agoraphobia. Agoraphobia: Intense anxiety about being trapped or stranded in a situation without help if a panic attack occurs. •Although panic disorder is usually linked to agoraphobia, it is possible to experience agoraphobia without panic disorder, or panic disorder without agoraphobia.
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6 Panic Disorder Neurotransmitters Anxiety Sensitivity Conditioned Fear Reactions Suggested explanations include: Biological relatives of people with panic disorder are 8 times more likely to develop this condition. •One set of biological theories focuses on abnormalities in the levels of particular neurotransmitters . According to one such view, people with panic disorder have an excess of norepinephrine or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. •According to anxiety sensitivity theory , people with panic disorder tend to interpret cognitive and somatic manifestations of stress and anxiety in a catastrophic manner causing the individual to hyperventilate. If this increase in the rate of breathing fails to lower blood levels of carbon dioxide, the individual is thrown into a panic attack (Klein, 1993). Conditioned fear reactions
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2009 for the course PSYC 37 taught by Professor Rezec during the Summer '08 term at Saddleback.

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Ch5_slides_and_notes - Anxiety Disorders 1 2 The Nature of...

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