ch13slides_and_notes_2

ch13slides_and_notes_2 - SubstanceRelated Disorders 1 The...

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1 Substance- Related Disorders
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2 The Biopsychosocial Perspective
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3 Over one quarter have abused or been dependent on drugs during their lifetime. More than half (51%) of all Americans have used nonprescription or illegal drugs for nonmedical purposes. SUBSTANCE: A chemical that alters mood or behavior when smoked, injected, drunk, inhaled, or swallowed in pill form.
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4 KEY TERMS SUBSTANCE INTOXICATION – Temporary behavioral or psychological changes due to substance accumulation. TOLERANCE – After repeated use of a substance, state in which the individual would have to increase amount used to achieve the same effects. SUBSTANCE WITHDRAWAL – Set of physical and psychological disturbances experienced when substance is discontinued. Intoxication: Behavior is maladaptive. Specific symptoms vary by substance. Alcohol intoxication: The individual can experience impaired judgment and attention, slurred speech, abnormal eye movements, slowed reflexes, unsteady gait, and changeable moods. Amphetamine intoxication: The person experiences accelerated bodily functioning as well as perspiration or chills. Tolerance: The extent to which the individual requires larger and larger amounts of a substance in order to achieve its desired effects, or the extent to which the individual feels less of its effects after using the same amount of the substance. Withdrawal symptoms: Also vary according to substance used. For example, nicotine withdrawal commonly includes anxiety and irritability. Substances with higher potency can lead to such severe physical and psychological symptoms that medical care is required.
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5 SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS SUBSTANCE ABUSE - Maladaptive substance use that leads to significant impairment or distress. SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE - Addiction. •Currently, substance abuse is defined as the maladaptive pattern of substance use occurring within a 12-month period that leads to significant impairment or distress evidence by (1) failure to meet obligations, (2) use of substances in physically hazardous situations, (3) legal problems, or (4) interpersonal problems. Substance dependence is a maladaptive pattern of use manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms during a 12-month period and caused by continued use of substance
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6
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7 Alcohol
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8 Patterns of Use and Abuse Approximately 5% of Americans are considered heavy drinkers. One in seven has history of alcohol abuse or dependence. Clip art copyright © 2002 www.arttoday.com. Used with permission. •These estimates vary by gender, with one fifth of men having lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence, twice the rate for women. •Among women, there are variations in prevalence by age with highest rates reported for adolescent females.
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9 Effects of Alcohol Use Immediate Effects Sedating Central Nervous System Depressant Potentially Fatal in Excess •In small amounts, alcohol has sedating effects leading to feelings of warmth, comfort, and relaxation. In larger amounts, it may lead drinkers to feel more
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2009 for the course PSYC 37 taught by Professor Rezec during the Summer '08 term at Saddleback.

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ch13slides_and_notes_2 - SubstanceRelated Disorders 1 The...

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