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Lesson 8aL - International Relations System of interactions...

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International Relations System of interactions between nations and other political bodies. Foreign Policy A nation’s basic goals and actions in international relations. Sovereignty The final authority to decide a political question. A nation A nation-state’s or governing body’s state’s or governing body’s A nation-state s or governing body s state s or governing body s autonomy.
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Moral Idealism “A philosophy that sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and to agree on moral standards for conduct.” Or, to give countries the benefit of the doubt. P liti l R li Political Realism “A philosophy that sees each nation acting principally in its own interest.” principally in its own interest. Or, you can’t trust ‘em as far as you can throw ‘em.
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Diplomacy Political relationships with other nations. Alliance A formal agreement between 2 or more nations to protect interests. Foreign Aid Resources rendered to other nations. Economic aid = $$$
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Covert Operations Concealed actions approved by the President and performed by intelligence. E i S ti Economic Sanctions Limits on trade. à Boycott – actively NOT buying/importing from a Boycott actively NOT buying/importing from a country. à Embargo – barring both imports and exports. War Open hostile military actions War – Open, hostile military actions. New to this list: Terrorism
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Collective security Nations banding together to deal with threats to peace. E.g., United Nations, NATO. Isolationism Minimizing military and political involvement. E Th U S & WWII 1941 E.g., The U.S. & WWII, pre-1941. à Before Pearl Harbor, Americans agreed that it was not our fight, so why should the US be involved? Monroe Doctrine (1823) U.S. policy that demanded that European nations would h l h h have no more colonies in the Western Hemisphere. …to create a safe “bubble” and stop foreign invaders.
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To review: President’s power to: à Negotiate treaties and executive agreements. à Send/receive ambassadors. à Command the military. à Conduct covert ops Conduct covert ops. Congress’s power to: à Fund everything. à Approve treaties. à Declare war (with 2/3 vote)
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Why the President (not Congress)? President can act quickly (and secretly). Congress is an 800-pound gorilla. H h d ld i b k 535 l i l l i h à How hard would it be to wake up 535 legislators late at night and have them meet to decide what to do? à And President can take the blame for bad foreign policy. à BUT recently Congress has asserted more control over foreign policy. Power of the purse – placing conditions on funding. Also Congress has gained more expertise. Senators and Reps are also meeting foreign counterparts now Divided government also causes assertiveness.
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State Department By law, has primary responsibility for conducting foreign relations.
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