Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Ling 110Lg: In a Word Fall 2007 B. You...

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Ling 110Lg: In a Word Fall 2007 B. You are expected to know what the following terms and descriptions mean, including exemplification, where relevant. 1. Phonetics and Phonology and the Phonology-Morphology Interaction 1.1. The relations between the acoustic signal and its perception The problem of lack of segmentability The problem of lack of invariance Properties of speech sound waves 1.2. The articulation of English consonants (don't forget to pay attention to your own pronunciation) - Depending on when the vocal cords start vibrating when we release the consonantal closure English consonants are subdivided into: voiced (+voice) and voiceless (-voice). - Perception of voicing is dependent on the timing relations between the release of the stop closure and the onset of voicing. - English speakers will perceive a stop+vowel sequence as voiced if voicing begins within about 30 milliseconds after the release of the stop closure. If the voicing begins more than 30 milliseconds after the release of the stop closure, the stop will be perceived as voiceless. 1.2.1. Place of articulation for consonants: Labial, Labiodental, Interdental, Alveolar, Alveopalatal, Velar, Glottal Glottis Velum Palate Teeth Lips Alveolar ridge
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1.2.2 Manner of articulation for consonants: STOPS (Full closure of mouth articulatory apparatus) Labial: -voice p sp an +voice b b an +nasal m m an Velar: -voice k sc ar +voice g g ap +nasal ŋ wing Alveolar: -voice t st un +voice d d ot +nasal n n ot FRICATIVES Labiodental: Interdental: Alveolar -voice f f an +voice v v an Palatal: voice θ th in +voice ð th en Glottal: -voice s s un +voice z z ap -voice š sh ip -voice h h +voice ž garag e AFFRICATES Alveopalatal: -voice č ch urch +voice ĵ j udg e NASALS BILABIAL ALVEOLAR VELAR m n ŋ LIQUIDS ALVEOLAR PALATAL l r GLIDES BILABIAL PATATAL w y Depending on their place of articulation, English consonant sounds are subdivided into: Sounds Place Number of sounds (bi)labials both lips 4 labiodentals 2 interdentals teeth 2 alveolars alveolar ridge (a.r.) 6 palatals between a.r. & palate 6
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Velars velum 3 Glottal glottis 2 1.2.3 Advanced classification: Stop/Continuant, Obstruent/Sonorant, front/mid/back. Obstruents: Stops, Fricatives, Affricates Sonorants: Nasal, Liquids, Glides 1.3.1. Place of articulation for vowels: high, mid, low; front, central, back FRONT: MID: BACK: Lips: Labials Alveolar ridge: Alveolars Velum: velars Teeth: Labio-dentals Alveopalatals Uvula: uvulars Palate: Palatals Pharynx: pharyngeals Glottis: Glottals 1.3.2 Vowel manner of articulation classification: Round, lax, tense Diphthongs - The position of the tongue changes depending on the vowel - Vowels can be tense or lax as depending on the tenseness/laxness of the tongue root - In English, tense vowels become diphthongs, which means that a glide is inserted after the vowels. - English Glides: [y], [w]
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2009 for the course LING 110Lg taught by Professor Borer during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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Final Study Guide - Ling 110Lg: In a Word Fall 2007 B. You...

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