Study Guide

Study Guide - a. linguistic competence: refers to the...

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a. linguistic competence: refers to the knowledge of a language system. First found in the works of Noam Chomsky (was opposed to linguistic performance) linguistic performance : One of the two elements in Chomsky’s performance/competence distinction Relates to language production with an emphasis upon how this is different from competences. The mental knowledge of language itself. 1b. prescriptive grammar: the codification and the enforcement of rules governing how a language is to be used. Declares how language should be 2 descriptive grammar Observes and records how language is used in practice (which is the basis of all linguistic research) Declares how language is 3c. symbol the pairing of sound and meaning (or, in sign language, of gesture and meaning) is not related to the content of the information conveyed. It is arbitrary 4 icon they encode information in a way which relates (more or less) directly to the content of the information conveyed. They are not arbitrary 5d. arbitrariness of sound 6 meaning pairings pairing words with their meanings 7e. Whorfian hypothesis Claims a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the word and behaves in it. Claims that a particular language’s nature influences the habitual though of its speakers. Different languages patterns yield difference patterns of thought This idea challenges the possibility of representing the world perfectly with language, because it acknowledges that the mechanisms of any language conditions the thought of its speakers community 8f. functional lexicon consists of words which have grammatical meanings but are not concepts 9 conceptual/substantive lexicon consists of concepts and the sounds, or names, that mark them 10g. checklist theory According to this theory, concepts (and the words that stand for them_ can decompose into discreet sub-properties Tells us that concepts are précis, and that they can be decomposed into a small set of principles.
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Study Guide - a. linguistic competence: refers to the...

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