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exam 2 notes - The Han Dynasty into Chinas Classical...

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2/4/09 The Han Dynasty- into China’s Classical Age (206-220 AD) Liu Bang Peasant- rises to power Restores Imperial Control Continues centralized state Expansion- into Korea Nomads (Huns)- eventually defeated and assassinated Legalist replaced by Confucian bureaucrats Basis of government exams Meritocracy Silk Road = multiple routes to Rome Arts and Sciences Innovative period Paper (brush pen) Compasses Watermills, rudders Horse collar, wheelbarrow, irrigation Science Calendar: 365.5 Medicine: diagnosis Remedies, acupuncture Pre-Islamic Arabia Arabian peninsula Semitic
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Not united Nomadic tribes Bedouins Raiders and traders Few cities The 5 th and 6 th centuries Trade routes Mecca, Medina Contacts with other people Christians, Jews Muhammad and the Spread of Islam Muhammad (570-632) Prophet of Allah Background Trader Marries 4 children (sons dies) Wealthy, respected but dissatisfied Hills and meditation Conversion Near Mecca Receives revelations 610 AD Via Gabriel Written down Koran (Qur’an)
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Recitation Form basis of Islam Submission to the will of Allah Followers: Muslims Islamic Faith Five pllars of Islam Allah one and only God, Muhammad his prophet Prayer (5 times a day) Almsgiving Fasting (Ramadan) Pilgrimage to Mecca Attraction of Islam Egalitarianism Sense of community Strong moral codes No liquor, pork… The Koran More than theology… Law, social institutions Ethical teachings No idolatry, infanticide, usury Limited acceptance of earlier Christian and Jewish teaching “peoples of the book” Koran = refinement and completion 2/6/09
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Reaction Islam initially rejected by all but a few Family Convert then Poor Persecutions by Umayyad (local rulers) Local gods threatened Plots to murder Muhammad Muhammad invited to Medina as an advisor  (622 A.D.) Hijra
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Attacked - but brave fighter Military victories and converts Returns to Mecca, 629 A.D. By 630 Mecca is Islamic Spread of Islam Muhammad dies 632 A.D. Most Arabs in area converting No Clear successor - (Ali? Cousin/son-in-law) Abu Bakr Early convert Meanwhile Wars of expansion Jihad (striving) Tradition of Arabic raids No Forced conversion Conquered Syria, Egypt, Persia (7th c.) Conquered North Africa and Spain (Early 8th c.) Why So Successful? Army Nothing Unique Three Main Reasons
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Enemies weakness Disaffection of Local populations Under Persian rule Arab religious ideology The Problem of Succession - the Sunni - Shi’a Split Uthman 3rd caliph is Murdered Ali Rejected by Umayyad clan Warfare, 657 Ali winning - accepts pleas for mediation Umayyad forces re-group Ali loses “face” and support Mu’awiya named caliph Ali assassinated 661 Continued Fighting Ali’s first son forced to renounce caliphate Second son Killed, 680 Results: Two Groups Sunni - Umayyad = majority
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