Psych Review Ch12

Psych Review Ch12 - Chapter 12: Personality, Theory,...

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Chapter 12: Personality, Theory, Research, and Assessment 1. Define the construct of personality in terms of consistency and distinctiveness. Consistency occurs in terms of consistent tendencies to act with a certain behavior that portrays a similar personality most of the time. It is also known as consistency across situations. Distinctiveness describes how people, even with similar personality traits and behaviors, do not all act entirely in the same manner. Also categorized by varied reactions to similar situations. 2. Explain what is meant by a personality trait and describe the five-factor model of personality. A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations. It is thought that there are a few basic personality traits that set the basis for other more complicated traits. In factor analysis, correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. The five-factor model of personality maintains that most personality traits are derived from just five higher-order personality traits: extraversion (outgoing), neuroticism (anxious), openness to experience (curiosity, flexibility), agreeability (sympathetic, trusting), and conscientiousness (diligent, disciplined). Personality can be described adequately by measuring the basic traits that have been identified. The model is purely descriptive and provides no insight into the causes or development of personality. 3. List and describe the three components into which Freud divided the personality and indicate how these are distributed across three levels of awareness. Freud’s psychoanalytical theory divides personality into three components: the id is the primitive, instinctive component that operates according to the pleasure principle; the pleasure principle demands immediate gratification of its urges, and it forces the UNCONSCIOUS id to engage in primary-process thinking. The ego is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality of principle; the ego considers social norms, etiquette, rules, and customs and is guided by the reality principle which seeks to delay the gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found; the ego operates under the UNCONSCIOUS, PRECONSCIOUS, and CONSCIOUS mind and engages in secondary-process thinking that is focused on relatively rational thinking. The superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong. The conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time. The preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved. The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior. Unconscious is believed to be much larger than the conscious mind. 4. Explain the preeminence of sexual and aggressive conflicts in Freud's theory and describe the operation
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYCH 201 taught by Professor Raymark during the Spring '08 term at Clemson.

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Psych Review Ch12 - Chapter 12: Personality, Theory,...

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