Psych Review Ch10

Psych Review Ch10 - Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion 1....

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Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion 1. Compare drive, incentive, and evolutionary approaches to understanding motivation. A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension. Individuals are motivated to pursue actions that lead to drive reduction, although drive theories do not explain all motivation. An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior. Drive theories are how internal states of tension push and incentive theories are how external stimuli pull. Evolutionary theories suggest that motivation is geared toward maximizing reproductive success. 2. Distinguish between the two major categories of motives found in humans. Biological motives originate in bodily needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex. Social motives originate in social environments and experiences, such as the need for achievement, autonomy, and affiliation. 3. Summarize evidence on the physiological factors implicated in the regulation of hunger. Brain regulation within the hypothalamus was thought to mainly control hunger, but the lateral and ventromedial nucluei. Lesioning the lateral nucleus caused subjects to not feel hungry, and lesioning the ventromedial nucleus caused subjects to keep eating even if they were full or satiated. It is also believed that the paraventricular nucleus plays a large role in hunger regulation. The glucostatic theory states that glucose, a simple sugar that is an important source of energy, levels in the blood are monitored by glucostats-neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid. When there is sufficient glucose levels, the glucostats signal “full.” Complications arose because the glucose levels in the blood do not fluctuate much and glucostats are slow to react. 4. Summarize evidence on how the availability of food, culture, learning, and stress influence hunger. Palatability factors into the amount being consumed in the sense that the better tasting the food, the more a person will eat. The quantity factor states that more available food means more will be consumed. The variety factor states that the more the variety of food presented to someone, the more the person will eat. The presense of others factor states that people tend to eat more when they are surrounded by others with whom they are comfortable. Because of these four factors, Thanksgiving dinner is a very “dangerous” eating environment. Hunger can also be aroused by advertisements and pictures of food. Culture and learning factors state that people from different cultures and areas of the world will learn to enjoy some foods that others may find repulsive. Getting used to the taste of a food usually requires some time, but the learned or acquired taste makes the food more enjoyable to eat. Taste preferences are partly a function of learned associations formed through classical conditioning.
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYCH 201 taught by Professor Raymark during the Spring '08 term at Clemson.

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Psych Review Ch10 - Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion 1....

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