Psych Review Ch14

Psych Review Ch14 - Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders 1....

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Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders 1. Describe the medical model of abnormal behavior. The medical model proposes that is is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease. The rise of the medical model brought improvements in the treatment of those who exhibited abnormal behavior. The disease analogy continues to be useful. Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness from another. Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness. A prognosis is a forecast about the probable course of an illness. 2. Explain the most commonly used criteria of abnormality. Deviance: when behavior deviates from what society considers a social norm. Maladaptive behavior: everyday adaptive behavior is impaired. Personal distress: great personal depression or anxiety. Often only one of the criterion is met. Value judgements are made as to what represents normal versus abnormal behavior. However, judgements about mental illness reflect prevailing cultural values, social trends, and political forces.Homosexuality was deleted from the official list of psychological disorders in 1973. It is often difficult to draw a line that clearly separates normality from abnormality. Only when behavior becomes extremely deviant, maladaptive, or distressing is it considered a disease. It is a matter of degree, no an either-or proposition. 3. List three stereotypes of people with psychological disorders. Psychological disorders are incurable: most treatment is largely a failure, but the vast majority of people who are diagnosed as mentally ill eventually improve and lead normal, productive lives. People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous: modest association between mental illness and violence, stereotype comes from media attention. People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people: only the case in small number of severe disorders. 4. List the five diagnostic axes of DSM-IV. Axis 1: Clinical Syndromes; Axis 2: Personality Disorders; diagnosis is made on axes one and two, and the rest are used to record supplemental information. There are many more disorders listed in the DSM today than there were in previous versions. 5. Discuss estimates of the prevalence of psychological disorders. Epidemiology is the study of distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population. Prevalence refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period. A lifetime prevalence is the percentage of people who endure a specific disorder at any time in their lives. One-fifth of the population exhibited clear signs of mental illness at some point in their lives. The progressively higher estimates from year to year have generated some controversy. The characterization does not mean anything if half the population has it. 6. List five types of anxiety disorders and describe the symptoms associated with each.
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Psych Review Ch14 - Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders 1....

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