Unformatted text preview: Quick…Check-up! Management Innovator’s
1. Theory X - Y 1. Scheduling Charts 2. Hawthorne Studies 4. General Management Principle 5. Japanese Quality Award - Naming 6. Father of Scientific Management 7. Motion Study 8. Bureaucracy 9. Administrative Principles 10. Theory Z A. Douglas McGregor B. Henry Gantt C. Elton Mayo D. Henri Fayol E. William Edwards Deming F. Frederick Taylor G. The Gilbreths H Max Weber I. Mary Parker Follett J.. William Ouchi 1 Terminology Leadership
The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. 2 Bases of Leadership Power
• Coercive • Reward • Expert • Referent • Legitimate Boss Worker
3 Worker Worker Leadership Leadership
The greatest leaders are unknown unknown
to their subjects. to
When a leader Plans, When Organizes and Controls the subjects go about their work and believe that their projects are accomplished entirely through their own efforts. 4 What is the Origin of Management? What Origin
Is it a Profession ? If so, when did it all begin? 5 Terminology Management
The process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources Leadership The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. 6 Management Prerequisites “Basic Tasks”
Planning, Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling Controlling 7 Management Skills Interpret this chart
• Complex • Multidimensional • Range of skills 8 “Basic Management Principles” Management Name a few…….. Name Webster on Principle…. Webster
Basic truth… rule or standard.. predetermined policy…. Law concerning the functioning of …….. natural phenomena or process 9 Henri Fayol’ s - General Management Principles.
“First Documented - 1874” “First translated into English in 1929 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Division of Labor.....specialization based on tasks: skills, aptitude & training Authority...................giving orders w/power to exact obedience Discipline..................corrective rather than punitive…. i.e.: ”Hot Stove” Unity of Command....receive orders from one person. Initiative .................... planning and executing Unity of Direction..... common objective…i.e.: “Mission Statement” Subordination........... of individual interest to the general interest & reconciling differences Remuneration............ Compensation based upon working conditions. Centralization............ Concentrated dispersed authority Scalar Chain.............. hierarchy of command i.e.: Management levels Order ......................... material and social Order 1. i.e.: “ A place for Everything and Everything in it’s place” 1. i.e.: 2. “ A place for Everyone and Everyone in their place place 12. Equity………………….. Treat people fair.. Equally as possible Equity………………….. Consistency = Good & Bad 1. 1. Esprit de Corps…… Esprit “Union in Strength” harmony & team spirit! 1. Stability of tenure…..reduce to frequency and unnecessary Stability turnover of the workforce. 10 Management and Organization Trends Management
• Management philosophies and organization forms change over time to meet new needs. change • Some ideas and practices from the past past are still relevant and applicable to management today. Or…. is the old out and the new in! Or….
11 Management and Organization Trends Management
• Management philosophies and organization forms change over time to meet new needs. change Or…. is the old out and the new in! Or…. Consider…..
• 1300 BC… Egyptians, the importance of administration. • China…… Confucius’s parables… “ethic’s & admin…” • Greece…. Socrates'… Greece….
– Management as a skill different from technical knowledge. • Roman Catholic Church….
– Most efficient formal organization in the history of the Western civilization • Military…. 1790 French Army – the General Staff. 12 Environmental Perspective
External forces have External influenced organizations and the influenced practice of management ! practice Social Forces…..
Values, needs, and standards of behavior 13 Environmental Perspective Environmental
External forces have influenced organizations and the influenced practice of management ! practice Political Forces….
Influence of political / legal institutions on people & organizations. 14 Environmental Perspective Environmental
External forces have influenced organizations and the influenced practice of management ! practice Economic Forces….
Forces that affect the availability, production, & distribution of a society’s resources among competing users 15 Management Perspectives
Time - Line
Exhibit 2.1, p.44 2000 The Technology-Driven Workplace 2010 1990 The Learning Organization 2010 1980 Total Quality Management 2000 1970 Contingency Views 1950 Systems Theory 2000 1940 Management Science Perspective 1990 1930 Humanistic Perspective 1890 Classical 1940 2010 1870
16 Management Emphasis
(Different Approach) (Formal, Documented) Classical Perspective: 3000 B.C.
Scientific Management Bureaucratic Organizations Administrative Principles Administrative Principles Humanistic Perspective Humanistic
Human Relations Movement Human Resources Perspective Behavioral Sciences Approach Management Science – Operations Research Contingency Approach Systems Approach 17 Classical Perspective: 3000 B.C.
● Rational, scientific approach to management – make organizations efficient operating machines
Scientific Management Bureaucratic Organizations Administrative Principles ●
● ● 18 Classical Perspective: 3000 B.C. Scientific Management:
General Approach Taylor 1856-1915 • Developed standard method for performing each job. • Selected workers with appropriate abilities for each job. • Trained workers in standard method. • Supported workers by planning work and eliminating interruptions. • Provided wage incentives to workers for increased output. 19 Historical Perspective - Management Approaches Classical Perspective: 3000 B.C. Bureaucratic Organizations….
Can you name me a Organization or Business that you would consider a Bureaucracy? that 20 Historical Perspective - Management Approaches Classical Perspective: 3000 B.C. Bureaucratic Organizations….
Max Weber 1864-1920 German
– Clearly defined authority and responsibility – Formal record keeping – Separation of management and ownership 21 Classical Perspective: 3000 B.C. Bureaucratic Organizations
• Prior to Bureaucracy Organizations
– European employees were loyal to a single individual rather than to the organization or its mission – Resources used to realize individual desires rather than organizational goals • Systematic approach – looked at organization as a whole. 22 Bureaucratic Organizations
Division of labor with Clear definitions of authority and responsibility Personnel are selected and promoted based on technical qualifications Positions organized in a hierarchy of authority Administrative acts and decisions recorded in writing Management separate from the ownership of the organization Managers subject to Rules and procedures that will ensure reliable predictable behavior Exhibit 2.3, p. 49 23 Administrative Principles
Contributors: Henri Fayol
Mary Parker Chester I. Barnard Focus:
– Organization rather than the individual – Management functions:
• planning • organizing, • commanding, • coordinating, • controlling 24 Mary Parker Follett 1868-1933
• Importance of goals for reducing conflict in organizations
– – – Popular with businesspeople of her day Overlooked by management scholars Contrast to scientific management “MBO” of today! – Reemerging as applicable in dealing with rapid change in global environment • Leadership – importance of people vs. engineering techniques 25 Chester Barnard 1886-1961
• Informal Organization
– Cliques…. Communication network. – Naturally occurring social groupings • Acceptance Theory of Authority (Power) – Free will – Can choose to follow management orders 26 Humanistic Perspective
Emphasized understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace ●Human Relations Movement ●Human Resources Perspective ●Behavioral Sciences Approach 27 Human Relations Movement
Emphasized satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity. Hawthorne Studies Hawthorne
•Ten year study •Four experimental & three control groups •Five different tests •Test pointed to factors other than illumination for productivity •1st Relay Assembly Test Room experiment, was controversial, test lasted 6 years •Interpretation, money not cause of increased output •Factor that increased output, Human Relations 28 Abraham Maslow’s Abraham Hierarchy of Needs Hierarchy 1908-1970 Selfactualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological
Based on needs satisfaction
Chapter 16 – Maslow in more detail Douglas McGregor Douglas Theory X & Y Theory
Theory X Assumptions 1906-1964
Theory Y Assumptions • Dislike work –will avoid it • Must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment • Prefer direction, avoid responsibility, little ambition, want security • Do not dislike work • Self direction and self control • Seek responsibility • Imagination, creativity widely distributed • Intellectual potential only partially utilized 30 Behavioral Sciences Approach
• Applies social science in an organizational context • Draws from economics, psychology, sociology, anthropology, Sub-field of the Humanistic Management Perspective and other disciplines – Understand employee behavior and interaction in an organizational setting – OD – Organization Development 31 Management Science Perspective
• Emerged after WW II • Applied mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to managerial problems Operations Research – mathematical modeling Operations Management – specializes in physical production of goods or services Information Technology – reflected in management information systems 32 Historical Perspective - Management Approaches
Management Science – Operations Research Management - application of mathematics, statistics & quantitative techniques application • decision making & problem solving • Management Information Systems •MRP I - MRP II - ERP 33 Contingency View of Management
- actions dependent on identifying key contingencies / situations situations - organizational phenomena exist in logical patterns Exhibit 2.6, p. 59 Successful resolution of organizational problems is thought to depend on managers’ identification of key variations in the situation at hand variations
34 Systems View of Organizations Exhibit 2.5, p. 58 35 Systems Approach
• • The operations function involves the conversion of inputs into outputs. Business unit is a set of interrelated parts that function as a whole for a common purpose. purpose. Value added
Inputs Land Labor Capital Transformation/ Conversion process
Feedback Outputs Goods Services Control
input – transformation – output - feedback input
36 Who Defines ????? Management prerogatives and the exercise thereof shall be unqualified , shall remain exclusively in the Management and shall include without limitation all matters not covered by this Agreement as well as the following, to the extent that the following are not limited or modified by the terms and conditions of this Agreement:
(a) (a) The prerogative to hire, promote, assign shifts, maintain discipline and efficiency, discharge and discipline all employees for a justifiable reason. The prerogative to determine the type of work to be performed , the location of work within the plants, the schedules of production, the schedules of working hours and the methods , process and means of manufacture. 37 Country Club Ideal / Team Mgr Fair / Firm Compromiser The Managerial Grid Bureaucrat Taskmaster EXHIBIT 111 38 Management Grid
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton Leadership The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. Management The process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources 39 Management Grid
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton Focus….. Focus….. “Management / Leadership Style” What are the Prime Variables….. People and Production 40 Management Grid
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton • Leadership styles…. Leadership
– – – – – Bureaucrat….. Country club… Task master…. According to Blake / Mouton According Fair / Firm compromiser… Ideal or Team Manager…. • Contrast…..
– – – – – Scientific management vs. Human Relations Autocratic vs. Democratic Authoritarian vs. Participative Production centered vs. People Centered Theory X vs. Theory Y 41 Management Grid 42 The Marriage Grid The Marriage • The Marriage Grid is a framework for understanding your marriage. • It applies to you and your mate. • Two sides: Concern for what Happens’ & Concern for your mate. Mate Mate
The term “Mate” is to mean the other person in your marriage. Mate is neutral and isn’t burdened with traditional and sentimental meaning…… Use mate to mean the other person…. It can mean these relationships: “Soul mate”, “Helpmate”, “Playmate”, “Cellmate”, “Intimate”, “Checkmate” & “Stalemate”.
43 Pareto Phenomenon = 80 /20 Rule Pareto
Vilfredo Pareto 18th century… study of wealth distribution in Milan Vital few things are important for reaching Vital an objective or solving a problem. an • 80% of problems are caused by 20% of the activities. How do “you” identify the vital few? 44 Basic’s of Leadership Development Basic’s
IPT Teaming Model
Lean Process EI Function – – – Cross functional? How long do they last? What does each group have What in common? in – How do they work? – How do they relate?
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- Spring '09
- Management, ........., Scientific Management Bureaucratic Organizations Administrative Principles