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Unformatted text preview: ng • organizing, • commanding, • coordinating, • controlling 41 Mary Parker Follett 1868-1933
• Importance of goals for reducing conflict in organizations
– – – Popular with businesspeople of her day Overlooked by management scholars Contrast to scientific management – Reemerging as applicable in dealing with rapid change in global environment • Leadership – importance of people vs. engineering techniques 42 Chester Barnard 1886-1961
• Informal Organization
– Cliques – Naturally occurring social groupings • Acceptance Theory of Authority (Power) – Free will – Can choose to follow management orders 43 Humanistic Perspective
Emphasized understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace ●Human Relations Movement ●Human Resources Perspective ●Behavioral Sciences Approach 44 Human Relations Movement
Emphasized satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity. Hawthorne Studies Hawthorne
•Ten year study •Four experimental & three control groups •Five different tests •Test pointed to factors other than illumination for productivity •1st Relay Assembly Test Room experiment, was controversial, test lasted 6 years •Interpretation, money not cause of increased output •Factor that increased output, Human Relations 45 Abraham Maslow’s Abraham Hierarchy of Needs Hierarchy 1908-1970 Selfactualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological
Based on needs satisfaction
Chapter 16 – Maslow in more detail Douglas McGregor Douglas Theory X & Y Theory
Theory X Assumptions 1906-1964
Theory Y Assumptions • Dislike work –will avoid it • Must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment • Prefer direction, avoid responsibility, little ambition, want security • Do not dislike work • Self direction and self control • Seek responsibility • Imagination, creativity widely distributed • Intellectual potential only partially utilized 47 Behavioral Sciences A...
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