06 Design Review Blkbrd Ch 4

06 Design Review Blkbrd Ch 4 - Quik…Check-up!...

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Unformatted text preview: Quik…Check-up! Quik…Check-up! “Design” Description…… Objective…. Performance Categories… Terminology: • Concurrent engineering Concurrent • Delayed differentiation. Delayed • Life cycle. Life • “QFD” QFD” • Robust design Robust • Standardization Standardization • Reverse engineering Reverse • CAD / CAM CAD Product Design Product Service Work Work Chapter 4 Design Design Design decisions have strategic significance for business organizations. Consider “what “ functional area is responsible for design. Work design Work Product and Service design. Product Process selection = Layout & Capacity Process Design Design Design decisions have strategic significance for business organizations. organizations. Reasons Design … Reasons Economic ……low demand, reduce cost, Economic Social & demographic …. aging baby boomers Social Political, liability or legal … OSHA, Govt. Reg’s Political, Competitive …. Advertising / promotions Competitive Cost or availability … Matl’s, labor, components Cost Technology…. Components, processes, form. Fit Technology…. How about Product Life Cycle…… Life Cycles of Products or Services Life Saturation Maturity Demand Decline Growth Incubation Time Life Cycles of Products or Services Life Television Maturity Saturation Demand Decline Growth Hula Hoop Incubation Time Hello Design / Development Design Cost Profile Financial commitment Stages of evolution Go – No Go Job Design The function of specifying the work of an individual or group. The objective is developing work assignments that meet the requirements of the group and the needs of the worker. the Job Design Job • Job design involves specifying the content and methods of job – – – – – What will be done Who will do the job How the job will be done Where the job will be done Ergonomics Class Exercise Class Shipping Container Volunteers….. • Seven team members • Male / female • Two Quality Inspectors • One customer • One statistician • One time keeper Tennis Ball Exercise….. Tennis How did the team react to the task ? What were the biggest obstacle ? What were the non-value activities ? What were the performance criteria? What metric’s could have been considered? Best action that lead to improvement ? Design of Work Systems Design Categories of Consideration • Specialization • Behavioral Approaches to Job Design • Teams • Methods Analysis • Motions Study • Working conditions Job Design Success Job Successful Job Design must be: • Carried out by experienced personnel with the necessary training and background • Consistent with the goals of the organization • In written form • Understood and agreed to by both management and employees Behavioral Approaches to Job Design Behavioral • Job Enlargement – Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task by horizontal loading • Job Rotation – Workers periodically exchange jobs • Job Enrichment – Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading “Over the Wall” Approach 70% Factor New Product Mfg Design Process ……is a sequence of events with measure able inputs, value added activities (and non-value added activities which should be minimized or eliminated) and measure able output. Manufacturability Manufacturability Manufacturability is the ease of fabrication and/or assembly which is important for: Cost Cost Productivity Quality Design for Design Manufacturing(DFM) Manufacturing(DFM •The designers’ consideration of the organization’s manufacturing capabilities when designing a product. •The more general term design for design operations encompasses services as well operations as “manufacturing”. Design For Operations Should take into account the capabilities of the organization in designing goods and services. in Sources of Ideas for Products and Services Internal Employees Marketing department R&D department External Customers (QFD) Competitors Suppliers . THE MANUFACTURING CYCLE Sales and Marketing Product Design Manufacturing Engineering Customers Production Planning & Control Inventory Control Finished Goods Production Shipping Warehouse Suppliers Receiving Quality Control Procurement Industrial Engineering Manufacturing Issues Manufacturing • Legal – FDA, OSHA, IRS – Product liability – Uniform commercial code Ethical – Releasing products with defects Environmental – EPA • • Regulations & Legal Considerations Product Liability A manufacturer is liable for any injuries or damages caused by a faulty product. Uniform Commercial Code Products carry an implication of merchantability and fitness. Standardization Standardization • • • • • Fewer parts in inventory & manufacturing Reduced training costs and time More routine purchasing, handling, and inspection procedures Opportunities for longer production runs & automation. Disadvantages of Standardization Disadvantages • • • Designs may be frozen with too many imperfections remaining. High cost of design changes increases resistance to improvements. Decreased variety results in less consumer appeal Quality Function Deployment…”QFD” An approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into the product and service development process. development Reverse Engineering…… Reverse The dismantling and inspecting of a competitor’s product to discover product improvements. Robust Design: Robust Design that results in products or services that can function over a broad range of conditions Concurrent engineering Brings together of engineering design and manufacturing personnel early in the design phase Research & Development (R&D) Organized efforts to increase scientific knowledge or product innovation & may involve : . Basic Research….. Advances knowledge about a subject without near-term expectations of commercial applications. Applied Research….. Development converts results of applied research into commercial applications. Terminology Terminology Mass Customization Strategy of producing standardized goods or services, but incorporating some degree degree of customization incorporating Delayed differentiation Delayed Producing but not quite completing a product or service Producing until customer preferences or specifications are known until Modular design Modular Form of standardization in which component parts are subdivided into modules that are easily replaced or interchanged. Computer-Aided Design Computer-Aided (CAD) is product design using computer graphics. Reliability Reliability The ability of a product, part, or system to perform its intended function under a prescribed set of conditions Component design Production/assembly techniques Testing Redundancy/backup Preventive maintenance procedures User education System design Failure: Situation in which a product, part, or system does not perform as intended Normal operating conditions: The set of conditions under which an item’s reliability is specified ‘per specification’ Methods Analysis Methods Methods analysis can come from a number of different sources: • • • • Changes in tools and equipment Changes in product design or new products Changes in materials or procedures Other factors (e.g. accidents, quality problems) Developing Work Methods • • • • • Eliminate unnecessary motions Combine activities Reduce fatigue Improve the arrangement of the workplace Improve the design of tools and equipment Motion Study Motion Motion study is the systematic study of the human motions Motion used to perform an operation. used Motion Study Techniques Motion • Motion study principles – guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedures • Analysis of therbligs – basic elemental motions of a job • Micro-motion study – use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze • Charts • Reach • Move • Turn • Apply Pressure • Grasp • Position • Release • Disengage • Crank • Walking (Body, Leg, Foot Motion) • Eye Motion (Focus, Travel) Body/Hand Motion ‘s Body/Hand Combinations tion e nt vem e ra Ins p Details of Method Requisition made by department head Put in “pick-up” basket To accounting department Account and signature verified Amount approved by treasurer Amount counted by cashier Amount recorded by bookkeeper Petty cash sealed in envelope Petty cash carried to department Petty cash checked against requisition Receipt signed Petty cash stored in safety box Op Mo Stor Job Requisition of petty cash De l ay age FLOW PROCESS CHART FLOW ANALYST PAGE D. Kolb 1 of 2 ect io n “Why “ MTM Motion Time Measurement • • • • • • Control labor costs. Based on a ”Standard” Basis for incentive $$$$ Job evaluation / family group Job performance rating. Statistical projections – Estimating bid price – Headcount determination – Critical baseline / analysis Key Terms Key • • • Ergonomics – Incorporation of human factors in the design of the workplace Self-directed teams – Groups empowered to make certain changes in their work process. Standard time – The amount of of time it should take a qualified worker to complete a specified task, working at a sustainable rate, using given methods, tools and equipment, raw materials,, and workplace arrangements • • • • Standard elemental times – Time standards derived from firm’s historical data Pre-determinde time standards – Published data based on extensive research to determine standard elemental times. Stopwatch time study – Development of time standard based on observations of one worker or team over a number of cycles. Balance delay – The percent of idle time….. Time Measurement Unit Time One TMU equals = the “Standard” 0.00001 hours or 1 hour = 100,000 TMU’s 0.0006 minutes or 1 minute = 10667 TMu’s or 0.036 seconds or 1 second = 27.8 TMU’s Application Application Time measurement relationship to film speed Motion within one picture frame. Basis to calculate wages…. Move decimal five places to right… Compensation Compensation • Individual Incentive Plans • Group Incentive Plans • Knowledge-Based Pay System • Management Compensation Group Incentive Plans Group • Scanlon Plan – Encourage reductions in labor costs • Kaiser Plan – Committees suggest ways of reducing costs • Lincoln Plan – Profit sharing, job enlargement, and participative management • Kodak Plan – Wages/bonus related to profits ...
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