Psych Review Ch5

Psych Review Ch5 - Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness 1. Discuss the nature and evolution of consciousness. Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli; it is a personal awareness. Freud argued that people’s behavior and feelings were influenced by the unconscious needs, wishes, desires, and conflicts that lie below the surface of the conscious awareness. The evolutionary basis of consciousness remains elusive. 2. Discuss the relationship between consciousness and EEG activity. EEG is a device that monitors electrical activity in the brain over a period of time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. It measures brain wave activity, and there are four different types of brain waves. All that is known for sure is that variations in consciousness are correlated with variations in brain activity. 3. Summarize what is known about our biological clocks and their relationship to sleep. Biological rhythms are period fluctuations in physiological functions. A circadian rhythm is a 24-hour biological cycle found in humans and many other species that usually encompasses sleep and wakefulness. These rhythms can leave individuals primed to fall asleep at a certain time of the day, and they tend to persist even when external time cues are eliminated. Daily exposure to light readjusts people’s biological clocks. The SCN sends signals to the pineal gland which secretes melatonin, a hormone that adjusts biological clocks and can induce sleepiness. Generally, it’s easier to fly westward and lengthen the day than fly eastward and shorten it. 4. Discuss various methods of helping people to realign their circadian rhythms. Rhythms can be realigned by giving people small doses of melatonin. 5. Describe how sleep research is conducted. Sleep researchers monitor the physical and mental activity throughout the night. An EMG records muscle activity and tension, and an EOG records eye movement. They also monitor heart rate, breathing, pulse, and body temperature. 6. Describe how the sleep cycle evolves through the night. There are many factors that determine a person’s ability to fall asleep, including how long it has been since the person slept, where the person is in his circadian cycle, the amount of noise or light in the room, the person’s age, desire to fall asleep, recent caffeine intake, and stress level. Being awake first moves into a drowsy stage where alpha waves are prominent. Stage 1 is a brief transitory stage of light sleep, giving way to lower-frequency theta waves. Hypnic jerks are found in stage 1 sleep. Stages 2, 3, and 4 see decline in respiration rate, heart rate, muscle tension, and body temperature. Sleep spindles are found in stage 2 sleep as the body is transitioning to slow-wave, deep sleep. Slow-wave sleep consists of stages 3 and 4, during which high amplitude, low frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings. 7. Compare and contrast REM and NREM sleep.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 3

Psych Review Ch5 - Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online