Psych Review Ch6

Psych Review Ch6 - Chapter 6: Learning 1. Describe Pavlov's...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 6: Learning 1. Describe Pavlov's demonstration of classical conditioning and the key elements in this form of learning. Learning is categorized by any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge. Classical conditioning is learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. An unconditioned stimulus is one that automatically stimulates a response that is unlearned (food = salivating). An unconditioned response is one that occurs as a result of an unconditioned stimulus (salivating). A neutral stimulus is one that becomes a conditioned stimulus after learning (bell = food). A conditioned response is one that is a result of the neutral stimulus becoming a conditioned stimulus (bell=salivating). 2. Discuss how classical conditioning may shape phobias and physiological processes, including sexual arousal. Classical conditioning can pair the sound of a harmful object, such as a dentist’s drill, to the pain that it elicits, thus causing one to cringe. Conditioning in childhood events can cause people to develop phobias based on the conditioning from the original incident. Advertising campaigns often try to take advantage of classical conditioning by eliciting pleasant emotions by attractiveness or enjoyable surroundings. 3. Describe the classical conditioning phenomena of acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery. Acquisition is the initial stage of learning something. Extinction is a gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response after it has been taken away. Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of no exposure to the conditioned stimulus. 4. Describe the processes of generalization and discrimination and summarize the classic study of Little Albert. Stimulus generalization occurs when after learning a specific response to a specific stimulus, the subject responds in a similar fashion to a new stimulus (red ball verses blue ball). Stimulus discrimination is the opposite; learning to discriminate between similar stimuli to produce different responses. 5. Explain what happens in higher-order conditioning. Higher order conditioning is when a conditioned stimulus functions as an unconditioned stimulus when paired with a new conditioned stimulus (trumpet instead of bell = food + salivating) 6. Discuss the nature of operant responding in comparison to the types of responding typically governed by classical conditioning. Operant is characterized by behavior becoming more and less likely depending on the consequences (instrumental learning). Reward is more likely to elicit a response or behavior. Punishment is less likely to elicit a response or behavior. Neutral is no change in the frequency of a response. Emit response is the sending forth of response. The
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYCH 201 taught by Professor Raymark during the Spring '08 term at Clemson.

Page1 / 3

Psych Review Ch6 - Chapter 6: Learning 1. Describe Pavlov's...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online