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solubilityrules - 4 2 are"...

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LBS 172 Dr. R. La Duca PREDICTING SOLUBILITY of Ionic Compounds in Water "soluble" = has a large K sp value; "insoluble" = has a small K sp value Priority Rules : (always true) 1 . All compounds containing alkali metal cations (Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + ) are " soluble" . e.g. NaCl (s) NaCl (aq) KI (s) KI (aq) 2 . All compounds containing the ammonium cation (NH 4 + ) are " soluble" . e.g. NH 4 Cl (s) NH 4 Cl (aq) NH 4 NO 3 (s) NH 4 NO 3 (aq) 3 . All compounds containing nitrate (NO 3 - ), chlorate (ClO 3 - ), perchorlate (ClO 4 - ), and acetate (CH 3 COO - ) are " soluble" . e.g. Cr(NO 3 ) 3 (s) Cr(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) KClO 3 (s) KClO 3 (aq)
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Secondary Rules : (usually true, but with exceptions noted below) 4 . Most compounds containing halides (F - , Cl - , Br - , I - ) are " soluble " . " insoluble " EXCEPTIONS: Ag + , Hg 2 2+ (i.e. Hg + ), Pb 2+ (for Cl - , Br - , I - ) Alkaline earth cations, Pb 2+ (for F - ) e.g. CuCl 2 (s) CuCl 2 (aq) BUT AgCl is "insoluble". AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) 5 . Most compounds containing sulfate (SO
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Unformatted text preview: 4 2-) are " soluble " . "insoluble" EXCEPTIONS: Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , (Ag 2 SO 4 is slightly soluble- intermediate K sp ) e.g. Na 2 SO 4 (s) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) FeSO 4 (s) FeSO 4 (aq) BUT BaSO 4 is "insoluble". Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) 6 . Most compounds containing carbonate (CO 3 2-), phosphate (PO 4 3-), oxalate (C 2 O 4 2-), chromate (CrO 4 2-) or sulfide (S 2-) are " insoluble " . "soluble" EXCEPTIONS: SEE PRIORITY RULES e.g. Na 2 CO 3 (s) Na 2 CO 3 (aq) BUT CoCO 3 is "insoluble". CoCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (aq) CoCO 3 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) 7 . Most compounds containing hydroxide (OH-) are " insoluble " . "soluble" EXCEPTIONS: SEE PRIORITY RULES, also Ba 2+ e.g. NaOH (s) NaOH (aq) BUT Cr(OH) 3 is "insoluble". Cr(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + 3 NaOH (aq) Cr(OH) 3 (s) + 3 NaNO 3 (aq)...
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