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AnthroNotes - 2/6/08 Culture From Latin "colo"...

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2/6/08 Culture From Latin “colo” (originally referring to horticulture/agriculture) Culture is fundamentally growth; what we seek to understand is what has grown, how, and why . Cultivation/breeding of animals Cultures of bacteria Culture as refinement (the act of introducing culture to change/improve/broaden) o Leads to hierarchy o Used as a symbol of power or prestige Culture as learned and shared behavior See quote: (Monaghan and Just 2000:36) o Specific and/or general abstracts of human social life o Society o Religion o Interaction w/ environment o Reaction to disease Culture as social/political/psychological wholes Culture (and its definition) has been/is constantly evolving and shifting. Should we abandon the term “culture” in anthropology? Could create hierarchy and multi-lateral divisions Used to generalize Anthropologists study a piece of their researched culture not the entire culture Could be seen as glorified like a museum artifact, focusing primarily on the inherent differences and not the development of the studied culture as an individual voice. It depends on the anthropologists’ definition of culture. To use it we need to be non-biased, critical but not compartmentalized, and connected as opposed to abstracted from the culture.
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Separate races 2/15/08 Franz Boas (1858-1942, Germany) o Emigrated to US for anthropological career, religious freedom (Jewish) o Studied Inuit people of the Baffin Islands in Canadian Arctic (1881) and the Kwakiutl people in NW US/Canadian territory (Vancouver) Focuses on: Environmental determinism o Geography/climate effect on culture o cartography Racial Determinism o Eugenics, racial poly genism Cultural evolutionism o Unilateral hierarchy of civilization o Founded historical particularism despite heritage Later coined as cultural relativism o First anthropologist to conduct fieldwork Founded descriptive method The need to observe a culture from the inside o Human sciences : idiographic (descriptive) vs. Natural sciences : Nomothetic or explanatory; laws o Established first institution of anthropology within academia Clifford Geertz o Studied Balinese society Cockfighting Symbol of status clash between Balinese men Native cultures Westernized culture
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2/20/08 Society: Malinowski (1884-1942 ,Poland) o Studied/Lived/Worked in England for most of adult life o Father of fieldwork practices Researched in the Trobriand Islands (New Guinea) Studied sexual culture o Integration Connection of separate events (i.e.-social hierarchy and masculinity) that create a conceptual view of culture Occurs more often at the symbolic level Holism The idea of universal connectivity within culture Occurs throughout anthropological study as an “integrated whole” in which each part is a function; biological needs: o Water, food, shelter, sex, hygiene, social interaction, communication Functionalism
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AnthroNotes - 2/6/08 Culture From Latin "colo"...

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