mgmt_309__2 - Chapter 7 Elements of planning/decision...

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Chapter 7 Elements of planning/decision making Organizational Goals 1. Purpose a. Provide guidance and unified direction for people b. Goal-setting practices strongly affect other aspects of planning c. Serve as a source of motivation for employees d. Effective mechanism for evaluation and control 2. Kinds of goals a. Level i. Mission- statement of “fundamental/unique purpose that makes business different” ii. Strategic- (for top mgmt) broad general issues iii. Tactical- (middle mgmt) how to operationalize actions iv. Operational- (low-level mgmt) shorter-term issues. .asoc w/ tactical b. Area i. Operations/mkts/finace ii. Sets goals for quality/productivity/etc c. Time frame i. Long-term- 10 years or longer ii. Intermediate- 5 or so years iii. Short-term- around 1 year 3. responsibilities a. involves all managers b. determined by board of directors/top mgmt 4. Managing more than one goal a. Optimizing- balancing/reconciling possible conflicts of goals Organizational Planning 1. Kinds a. Strategic- general plan outlining decision of resource allocation, priorities, action steps i. Generated by board of directors/top mgmt b. Tactical- implement (getting things done) spec parts of strategic plan i. Upper and middle mgmt c. Operational- carrying out tactical plans i. Middle/lower-level mgmt ii. Short term focus 2. time frame a. Long-range plans- many years/decades ( anything over 5 years) i. Environment makes it hard to plan so far in advance=monitoring envir b. Intermediate- 1-5 years i. Middle/first-line mgmt ii. Central focus of planning activities c. Short-range- managers day-to-day operations
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i. ACTION plan- operationalizes any other kind of plan ii. REACTION plan- allow the company to react to unforeseen prob 3. responsibilities a. Planning staff b. Planning task force c. Board of directors d. CEO e. Executive committee f. Line mgmt 4. Crisis mgmt a. Contingency planning- determination of alt courses of action to be taken if current plan is disrupted b. Crisis mgmt- procedures an org uses in the event of a disaster Tactical plans - specific steps designed to execute strategic plans 1. developing a. recognize/understand b. notice relevant resource/time issues c. understand human resource commitments 2. executing a. evaluate each course of action b. obtain/distribute information/resources c. monition horizontal/vertical communication d. monitor ongoing actives towards goal attainment Operation planning- development/implementation narrowly focused short time horizons lower level mgmt 1. single use- carry out action…not likely to be repeated in the future 2. programs- plan for a large set of activates 3. projects- generally less scope/complexity as a program Standing plans - for activities that recur regularly over a period of time enhance efficiency 1. policies (general) a. org’s response to a designated prob/situation b. tell how exceptions are to be handled 2. Standard Operating Procedures a. Outlines steps to be followed in particular circumstances
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mgmt_309__2 - Chapter 7 Elements of planning/decision...

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