Cumulative Section _ Greek Myth - Greek Gods The first...

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Greek Gods The first Gods (primal gods): Chaos, Gaea, Tartarus, and Eros Chaos gave birth to Night and Erebus (Darkness), who in turn gave birth to Day and Aether (high sky). Three Dynasties of Greek gods: 1. Uranus (Father Sky) & Mother Earth (called Gaea: = geo as in geology, i.e., the study of earth) 2. Cronus and Rhea, children of Uranus and Gaea. Cronus and Rhea & their brothers and sisters, who collectively are called the Titans, overthrew their father and mother. 3. Zeus and Hera plus other Olympians overthrew the Titan dynasty of their parents. Major Greek Gods Non-Olympian = * Zeus (Jupiter) Zeus is the king of the gods and the ruler of heaven, the most powerful god of all. He is not, however, infallible or all powerful. He is also the god of the sky and the weather (rain, thunder, and lightening), and his main weapon is the thunderbolt. He is also associated with justice and kingship. Even with these great responsibilities, Zeus has many children, both mortals and gods (over 160 that we know of), who appear in many myths. He carries a scepter, wears an olive wreath as a crown, and is the guardian of order and hospitality ( xenia ). The eagle is his bird. And bull Hera (Juno) Hera is the queen of heaven and the wife and sister of Zeus. She is patron of marriage and is often portrayed as the jealous wife. She can be very vindictive at times since she does not look kindly on the lovers of Zeus. In the Iliad , she favors the Greeks. The peacock and cow are her special animals. Poseidon (Neptune) He is the brother of Zeus and the god of the sea. He is additionally the god of earthquakes, and he created horses. He is the father of many monsters found in the Greek myths and often carries a trident. In the Iliad , he fights on the Greek side. dolphins Demeter (Ceres) Demeter is the sister of Zeus, and she is the goddess of agricultural fertility and of grain. Her daughter is Persephone. Hestia (Vesta) Hestia is the sister of Zeus and one of the virgin goddesses. She is the goddess of the hearth and is associated with the home. She is a very important and sacred goddess, yet she does not appear in many myths and rarely appears in anthropomorphic form. *Hades (Pluto) Hades is the brother of Zeus and the god of the underworld. He is only the ruler and god of the dead and does not correspond to the Christian idea of Satan, the ruler of Hell. He is merely in charge of the underworld, keeping the dead in Hades. His wife is Persephone. (Neither are Olympian gods because they live in the underworld full-time and do not have a palace on Mt. Olympus.) *Persephone (Proserpina) Daughter of Demeter, wife of Hades, and queen of the underworld. Athena (Minerva) Athena is a virgin daughter of Zeus. She was born from the head of Zeus. While she is the goddess of weaving and spinning as well as the domestic arts, she is also a god of wisdom and of war, representing the rational, strategic aspects of war. In battle she is armed with a spear and aegis (a goatskin shield of sorts). The owl is also associated with her. In the Iliad , she favors the Greeks.
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