Study_Guide_Test__1 - Study Guide Exam 1(Chapters 1 2 4 5...

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Chapter 1 Be able to: Define “psychology” (pp. 5) – the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Define descriptive research and contrast the merits and limitations of naturalistic observations, surveys, and case studies (pp. 25, 30-33). – research methods that observe and record behavior w/out producing casual explanations Naturalistic observations – Researchers can obtain data about a truly natural behavior rather than about a behavior that Is a reaction to an artificial experimental situation. Can be difficult and time-consuming, difficult to conduct observations for behavior that occurs infrequently Surveys –Gather data from a larger sample of people that is easier than other research methods. Rely on self-reported data, not all participants are honest. Can’t explain causes of behavior but can help in predicting behavior Case Studies –Offers unique advantages, but with serious research limits (lack of generalizability, recorder bias, and inaccurate or biased recall among participants. Define correlational research and the three types of correlations; determine the strength of a correlation from a correlation coefficient; and define the major limitation of correlations (pp. 33-35). (Note that it cannot prove causation). – any scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without w/out directly manipulating) two or more variables to find the relationships between them 1- positive correlation – two variables move or vary in the same direction (the two increase or decrease together) 2- negative correlation – two factors vary in opposite directions (one increases, the other decreases) 3- zero correlation –no relationship between variables a numerical value that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between the 2 variables. As the numbers decreases the relationship weakens Correlation is not causation – you can only draw conclusions about cause and effect
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Define experiment, and describe how independent and dependent variables, and experimental and control groups are important to the experimental method (pp. 25-27). – when the experimenter manipulates and controls the chosen variable to determine cause and effect
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYC 120 taught by Professor Beck during the Fall '08 term at Abilene Christian University.

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Study_Guide_Test__1 - Study Guide Exam 1(Chapters 1 2 4 5...

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