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Unformatted text preview: Health Psychology (PSYC 383) Lecture Notes 4/1/08- II-12a Janis (1958)-- Compared patients with low, medium and high levels of anxiety. Patients with pre-surgical medium levels of anxiety showed the best recovery outcomes. High anxiety pateients showed more negative side effects (pain, nausea, loss of appetite); patients with low levels of anxiety were more likely to react with anger and other negative emotions. Moderate levels of vigilances are desirable. Egbert et al (1964) Half of patients were instructed about what to expect in terms of post-operative pain and recovery, and they were also taught breathing exercises to manage pain. Compared to a control group, who did not receive any instruction, the experimental group took fewer narcotics and left the hospital sooner. II-14d Lack of time, lack of support, and lack of money are the three most often-cited reasons given by non-adherent patients. II-14b 1. asking patient to repeat instructions 2. writing down instructions 3. clarifying instructions 4. repeating instructions II-14a Lowest aherence rates-- Treatments that are behavioral; with patients who have COPD, diabetes, sleep disorders; with patients who are being asked to give up smoking or lose weight (80% non-adherence). Highest adherence rates-- Treatments that appear "medical"; with patients who have HIV, arthritis, cancer. II-14c Adherence is high when the treatment seems medical but low when it's vocational or behavioral. II-10a Five reasons why people use health services for emotional disturbances. 1. Stress and emotional responses produce physical symptoms. 2. Somaticizers-- who convert their stress to physical symptoms. 3. Medical issues are considered more legitimate than psychological ones. 4. Illness brings secondary gains (rest, time off) 5. Malingering-- faking illness II-7d Two costs of RECEIVING social support: 1. Guilt associated with demands on someone else's time and resources. 2. Threats to self-esteem that come from being dependent on someone else. II-6c Disclosure means writing or talking about a stressful situation (e.g., loss of loved one). People who talk or write about traumatic events in their lives may have greater negative emotions in the short-term but show less illness six months later. II-8b Stress management programs are ones in which people learn how to appraise stressful events, develop coping skills for dealing with those events, and put these skills into practice Useful for treating tension headaches and migraines, managing MS symptoms, controlling high bp, managing CHD. II-7j Long-term support providers (e.g., caregiving) show signs of compromised physical and mental health (depression, reduced immunity, increased rates of infection)....
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