February 21st - Rn. d. Most elements tend to gain or lose...

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February 21 st 2)   Plate Tectonics A. Reasons 1. Push (at ridge) 2. Pull (beneath trench, all subduct) 3. Sliding (downhill from M.O.R. to trench, gravity) 4. Piggyback (convection cell) B. Continents 1. 200 Ma a. All land = Pangaea b. All water = Panthalassa 2. 100 Ma in future a. North and South America are likely separated b. East Africa has rifted off c. India has stopped colliding, Himalayas are likely flat d. Atlantic Ocean has further widened e. Part of California = off the coast of British Columbia 3) Minerals A. Building Blocks 1. Atoms and elements a. Most fundamental units of matter separate by chemical means 2. Means a. Building blocks of minerals b. Nucleus: protons and neutrons c. Electrons orbit the nucleus ~ Opposite charges attract ~ If the number of protons = the number of neutrons then the atom  is neutral. ~ Some atoms are always neutral: noble gases. He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, 
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Unformatted text preview: Rn. d. Most elements tend to gain or lose electrons ions e. The number of protons defines the elements. ~ The number of neutrons defines the isotope, a.k.a. the element version. ~ There are only a small number of stable isotopes. All others are either unstable or radioactive. f. Bonds ~ How atoms are held together to make crystals, then minerals. ~ Ionic: Electron donation and acceptance ~ Covalent: Sharing of bonds ~ Def (From earlier) B. Polymorphs 1. Two minerals differing only by crystal structure. a. Carbon: graphite or diamond b. SiO 2 : common quartz, 5 others 2. Composition a. 3500-4000 minerals ~ 90 elements and 230 structures * 20 minerals = 95% of crust C. Silicate Minerals 1. Need abundant elements/opposite charges. a. Si +4 and O +2...
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February 21st - Rn. d. Most elements tend to gain or lose...

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