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Unformatted text preview: Rn. d. Most elements tend to gain or lose electrons ions e. The number of protons defines the elements. ~ The number of neutrons defines the isotope, a.k.a. the element version. ~ There are only a small number of stable isotopes. All others are either unstable or radioactive. f. Bonds ~ How atoms are held together to make crystals, then minerals. ~ Ionic: Electron donation and acceptance ~ Covalent: Sharing of bonds ~ Def (From earlier) B. Polymorphs 1. Two minerals differing only by crystal structure. a. Carbon: graphite or diamond b. SiO 2 : common quartz, 5 others 2. Composition a. 3500-4000 minerals ~ 90 elements and 230 structures * 20 minerals = 95% of crust C. Silicate Minerals 1. Need abundant elements/opposite charges. a. Si +4 and O +2...
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- Spring '08