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Exam 4 Study - Module 44 Personality An individual's...

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Module 44 Personality-  An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory:  The first comprehensive theory of personality, which included  ideas about an unconscious region of the mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms for  holding anxiety at bay. Free Association-  in which he merely told the patient to relax and say whatever came to mind,  no matter how embarrassing or trivial. Freud believed this led down a path to the patient’s  unconscious, where painful unconscious memories, often from childhood, could be retrieved and  released. Psychoanalysis-  Freud’s theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques. Unconscious-  A region of the brain containing thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of  which we are unaware. Id-  The id has a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy constantly striving to satisfy basic  drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress. The id operates on the pleasure principle. Ego-  The ego operates on the reality principle, seeking to gratify the id’s impulses in realistic  ways that will bring long term pleasure rather than pain or destruction. Superego-  The voice of conscience that forces the ego to consider not only the real but the ideal,  and focuses solely on how one ought to behave. Psychosexual Stages-  Stages during which the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct  pleasure sensitive areas of the body called erroneous zones. Oedipus Complex-  According to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires towards his mother and feelings  of jealousy and hatred towards the rival father.
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Identification-  The process by which children incorporate their parent’s values into their  developing superegos. Fixation-  A lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in  which conflicts were unresolved. Defense Mechanisms-  The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously  distorting reality. Repression-  The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing feelings, thoughts, and  memories from consciousness. Regression-  An individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage,  where some psychic energy remains fixated. Reaction Formation-  The ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their  opposites. Projection-  A mechanism in which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing  them to others.
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