HIST102FinalExamStudyGuide - Final Exam Study Guide Essay...

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Final Exam Study Guide Essay Question 1. Individual and Industrial Society Industrial modernity as the condition of “being a stranger” The industrialization of Europe, of course, had major economic implications. It did, however, also have significant effects on the social and political experience of the common European individual. The Industrial Revolution was the genesis of the modern experience of estrangement - the depersonalization of work, the rise of mass politics, and the politicalization itself of hate were divisive and perpetuated such sentiments of defamiliarization with their fellow citizens. The changing experience of work in an industrial society Prior to industrialization, work was localized to immediate boundaries of own land/home One worked for themselves: controlled own work progress, pride in benefits No separation of work and home life Family members participate in a household economy Industrial labor Machine now sets the pace of work Workers are expendable - doing unskilled work anyone could learn Laborers become a commodity that are easily replenishable Become cog in the industrial modernization machine The rise of mass politics coincides with the rise of modern industrial society As technological innovation allowed government to expand, the centralized state grew in size and importance government has assumed responsibility for more and more areas of social life: schooling, working conditions, etc. Opposed to when individuals set such conditions People are more educated due to mandatory schooling, more politically aware due to the birth of the mass press (proliferation of news available to the common man) As such, this gives rise to politics based on emotions People’s biases are magnified Politics are more inclusive yet volatile, erratic, full of hate Polarization of individuals based on political leanings Xenophobia - fellow citizens seen as strangers Ex. Dreyfus Affair Stimulates class conflicts between workers and a capitalist class of businessmen The politicalization of hate as a result → rise of Fascism/Nazism Furthering tension by pinpointing Jews as the root of Germany’s problems Alienation of a minority based on exaggerated and false claims Jews were either targeted as rabid capitalists who controlled Germany’s money, or as revolutionary Communists who take money xenophobia/racism maintained through mass politics and manipulation of politics through propaganda To conclude: use of new technology available through industrialization of Europe (discuss Hitler’s use of the radio, airplane, film to bolster ignorance) → Manipulation of news and use of mass politics to rapidly promote bias (propaganda) → modern experience of estrangement (perceived differences based on race/ethnicity/social class) How have people sought to overcome “being a stranger?” - discuss Marshall Plan and how it brought about an

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