Plato and Aristotle

Plato and Aristotle - Virtuous Character in a Virtuous...

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Virtuous Character in a Virtuous Community Plato - The Laws (347 BC) - The purpose of law is to make citizens virtuous - Virtues include: - Wisdom: knowing what is good and how to apply that to everyday life - justice: giving to each his own/what he deserves - Courage : the ability to stand up to something no matter how scary it is when it is necessary/for the good of yourself/your family - Especially temperance (self control): the ability to resist desires that you cannot rationally approve of (the essential precondition to acquire the other virtues - Education: early public coeducational education to teach people morals and how they should act; primarily aimed at developing self-control - Chorus: regularize minds and bodies through use of well-ordered, synchronized music and movement (use our bodies to get to our minds) Plato believed that Athens was egoistic and out of control because of the corrupting music (disorderly music corrupts the soul) - drinking parties: bring young adults together, get them drunk and test their self-control if they were unsuccessful, they would be shamed (strengthened mental and moral muscles) Plato’s Republic - Wisdom, courage and temperance are benefits to those who possess them. But: - Is your being a just person a good thing for you? - Is it rational to be moral? Why be just? - Justice is a pain: paying debt and keeping promises - Is our being just a “second-best” compromise in order to reap the benefits of others’ being just toward us? Because we are weak? - Socrates argues that justice is not only extrinsically good, but intrinsically good- good in itself. The Ring of Gyges - Gyges found a ring that could make him invisible. Thought that because he found the ring he could do whatever he wants- and does. Sleeps with king’s wife, ceases his thrown… - Shows that if anyone had this ring we would not do the same because justice is not only extrinsic. What is justice? - Justice is harmony within the soul. - Being just is good for a person in the very same way that being mentally or physically healthy us good for a person. What is the soul? - Living embodied person (a functioning mind within a living body.) - 3 parts, each part is virtuous when it performs its particular function well - Justice obtains in you when there is a correct relation among the 3 parts of your soul. Desire
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Plato and Aristotle - Virtuous Character in a Virtuous...

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