IGCC3 - IGCC Process and Engineering Since around the turn...

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IGCC Process and Engineering Since around the turn of the 19 th century, gasification has been used in practical applications. It is generally acknowledged that the first commercial application of gasified fuel was utilized by the London and Westminster Gas Light and Coke Company, initially using gas lights to illuminate the Westminster Bridge on New Year's Eve of 1813 (5). Eventually most major cities were lit up at night with some form of "town gas," usually procured from coal. This lead to an entirely novel industry, generating a great amount of economic activity while creating an important societal good. Incandescent gas powered lamps replaced candlelight and oil lamps with a steady, consistent light. This led to many social implications, such as allowing factories to have night shifts and making the streets of cities like London safer. Natural gas displaced some of this market until the advent of electricity was made commonplace. Another historical aspect is the role Germany played in the history of gasification. In the 1920s, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was developed to derive synthetic fuels from coal, due to the petroleum-poor nature of Germany. Much of the fuel used during World War II was derived from coal, allowing German and Japanese forces greater mobility. Germany's yearly synfuel production topped 124,000 barrels per day in 1944 (6). Further advantages of gasification were sadly not realized until recent modern inventions. One of the newest processes, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), uses gasification and combined cycle to produce energy from a syngas. Syngas is a product from gasification, and completely different than the products of combustion. The reaction for combustion (1) and the gasification reactions (2-5) are shown below: C + O 2 CO 2 + heat (1)
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C + ½ O 2 CO (2) C + H 2 O H 2 + CO (3) CO + H 2 O H 2 + CO 2 (4) C + 2H 2 CH 4 (5) Combustion uses excess air to produce CO 2 and heat. Those products are used to create the steam necessary for a power generation process. Combustion uses large amounts of oxygen in the form of excess air and emits terrible by-products into the atmosphere. In comparison, gasification operates at 1,400-2,800 o F and uses small amounts of oxygen to produce products that are not nearly as harmful to the atmosphere. The thermal conversion that takes place during gasification produces a material known as synthetic gas or syngas. Syngas contains mostly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and small amounts of methane. Some of the other products include: oils, tars, H 2 S, COS, CS 2 , mercaptans, NH 3 and HCN. These other by-products will be cleaned out of the syngas later in the IGCC process. Even though gasification is a specific process, it can occur in a few different types of gasifiers The Lurgi gasifier has one of the simplest gasification processors. The gasifier inputs coarse solids at the top of the gasifier while the oxidant and steam at injected at the
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IGCC3 - IGCC Process and Engineering Since around the turn...

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