Life Science 15 - Final-Exam - winter 2014 - Name Student ID Number TA Name(circle one Laurel Shaelynn Asif LIFE SCIENCE 15 LIFE CONCEPTS ISSUES FINAL

Life Science 15 - Final-Exam - winter 2014 - Name Student...

This preview shows page 1 out of 15 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Name_________________________________ Student ID Number_________________________________ TA Name (circle one): Laurel Shaelynn Asif LIFE SCIENCE 15: LIFE: CONCEPTS & ISSUES FINAL EXAM 21 March 2014 J. Phelan This exam is worth 250 points. Since the time allotted is 180 minutes, this works out to just over one point per minute. Budget your time accordingly. All answers should fit into the space provided. Do not write on the backs of pages as we will NOT grade them. Please write legibly. Answers that cannot be deciphered will receive no credit. Multiple-choice questions are worth four points each. Circle the letter in front of the one best or most appropriate answer choice on the exam. There is only one correct answer for each multiple-choice question. This exam has 15 pages including this one. Make sure your copy contains all of the pages. Good luck! Scores: Multiple Choice Short Answer page 2_______ (20 possible) prob. #31 _______ (14 possible) #36 _______ (14 possible) 3_______ (20 possible) #32 _______ (14 possible) #37 _______ (15 possible) 4_______ (20 possible) #33 _______ (14 possible) #38 _______ (15 possible) 5_______ (20 possible) #34 _______ (14 possible) #39 _______ (15 possible) 6_______ (20 possible) #35 _______ (15 possible) 7_______ (20 possible) Exam Total ____________ 1. Whenever the coefficient of relatedness between two individuals is less than 1.0, we should expect some conflict. This is because: a) an individual is related to itself by r = 1.0 and to the other individual by something less than 1.0. b) family conflict is a cultural construct. c) individuals should only expend resources on their offspring. d) parents and their offspring do not share genes. e) All of the above are correct. 2. Which of the following is NOT part of an action potential? a) Signals from all of the neuron’s dendrites converge to determine the neuron’s electrical charge. b) When the neuron reaches a threshold potential of about -40mV, Na+ channels open, which allows Na+ to rush in until it reaches about +50mV. c) K+ rushes out through ion channels, which decreases the neuron’s electrical charge so that it overshoots its resting potential of about -70mV. d) Na+/K+ pumps use energy to restore the concentration gradient and electrical charge of the neuron by pumping K+ in and Na+ out. e) All of the above take place during an action potential. 3. In a polyandrous mating system: a) sexual monomorphism is expected. b) parental investment is restricted to gestation and lactation. c) multiple females tend to mate with the same male. d) males tend to compete for access to females. e) variance in female reproductive success is greater than variance in male reproductive success. 4. Non-digestible plant fiber, such as cellulose, is a type of: a) protein. b) carbohydrate. c) fatty acid. d) nucleic acid. e) amino acid. 5. Across dozens of cultures, humans have come to have common ways of preparing their food, including using heat and marinating food in acidic solutions, such as vinegar or lemon juice. How might these be adaptations that help with digestion? a) Because even the weakest acids are toxic to all bacteria, these methods of food preparation reduce the incidence of dietary-induced bacterial infection. b) These methods of food preparation reduce the necessity of producing chyme and so increase the caloric efficiency of food intake. c) These methods increase the nutritional value of normally non-digestible cellulose. d) Harsh conditions such as heat and acid help to disrupt and denature macromolecules in food, increasing the efficiency of digestion. e) None of the above are correct. 2 6. Which of the following statements about interfering with neurotransmitters is NOT true? a) Cocaine acts by blocking dopamine reuptake inhibitors, thereby allowing dopamine to remain in the synaptic cleft longer. b) Botox prevents the release glutamate, which paralyzes muscles and reduces the appearance of wrinkles. c) Caffeine blocks the action of adenosine by binding to its receptors. d) Many drugs that are effective in the treatment of depression block the action of the serotonin re-uptake proteins, which allows serotonin to remain in the synaptic cleft longer. e) All of the above are true. 7. An individual with androgen insensitivity syndrome: a) is more prone to exhibit hyper-masculinity. b) cannot function in competitive interactions. c) is much more likely to escalate in a confrontational situation. d) has the karyotype XY. e) exhibits cortisol suppression in the presence of elevated testosterone levels. 8. The ingredient label on a container of shortening indicates “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil.” This means that during processing the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil was reduced. What is the result of decreasing the number of double bonds? a) The oil now has a lower melting point. b) There are more “kinks” in the fatty acid chains, reducing the membrane density. c) The oil now contains a higher percentage of carbohydrate. d) The fatty acid is modified from a diglyceride into a triglyceride. e) The oil is now more likely to be solid at room temperature. 9. Maternal diabetes is thought to be the consequence of: a) physiological constraints on the amount of insulin a mother can provide for the fetus. b) a mother consuming too much sugar during gestation. c) a mother withholding investment in future offspring in order to invest more in the current pregnancy. d) pregnant women decreasing their average daily amount of activity. e) conflict between the mother and fetus with respect to how much food the fetus should be given, since a mother is equally related to the fetus and all future offspring of hers while the fetus is more related to itself than to subsequent siblings. 10. The testicle size of chimps is 0.30% of their body weight compared to 0.02% for gorillas. The best explanation for this difference is: a) competition among sperm - that is, larger testes size indicates a greater production of sperm, thus increasing the likelihood of fertilizing a mate. b) male gorillas mate more frequently than male chimps and so need fewer sperm each time. c) gorillas would not be able to defend or maintain their territory if their testes were too big. d) chimps, on average, are much smaller than gorillas. e) gorillas’ mating system is strictly monogamous while chimps’ are extremely polygynous. 3 11. Among birds, males are XX and females are XZ. Which sex is more likely to display a sex-linked recessive trait? a) females b) males c) Males and females are equally likely to display a sex-linked dominant trait. d) Because there is no Y chromosome in birds, they are not affected by sex-linked dominant traits. e) The gender that is incubated at a higher temperature is more likely to display the trait. 12. Which of the following happens when we sleep? a) Adenosine molecules are reabsorbed. b) Adenosine receptors become increasingly blocked by adenosine molecules. c) Adenosine molecules bind to caffeine molecules, increasing their potency. d) Action potentials from neurons linked to adenosine receptors are more likely to fire. e) None of the above are correct. 13. Exclusive male parental care is much more prevalent in fish than mammals because: a) fish do not have the option of raising young in a defended nest site or den. b) fish are less likely to live in habitats with high quality resources. c) both male and female fish lactate. d) fish are less intelligent and so do not develop pair bonds. e) most fish reproduce by external fertilization while most mammals do not. 14. In humans, the primary function of the large intestine is the absorption of: a) amino acids. b) chyme. c) water. d) lipids. e) symbiotic bacteria. 15. Scientists can never observe evolution in action. This statement is: a) true; because evolution occurs over thousands to millions of years, scientists can only infer its activity after the fact. b) true; because evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population, and scientists cannot view the alleles, they can only infer the activity of evolution from observed phenotypic changes. c) true; evolution is a theory and not a fact, and no one can observe a theory. d) false; all evolutionary changes are observable as they occur. e) false; multiply replicated, controlled laboratory experiments and long-term studies of natural populations have enabled scientists to observe and measure evolution as it occurs. 4 16. The sex with the greater energetic investment in reproduction will be ___________________ when it comes to mating. a) more competitive b) more discriminating c) less interested d) more exhaustive e) less discriminating 17. Brain imaging research has revealed that hippocampus size is greater among long-time cab drivers than people who drive an average amount. These results suggest: a) memory games might aid cognitive abilities. b) evolution occurs over an organism’s lifetime. c) people are predisposed to do tasks they are naturally good at. d) many different parts of the brain an get bigger with use. e) more work is needed before conclusions can be made. 18. The law of segregation states that: a) gametes cannot be separate and equal. b) eggs and sperm separate before fertilization occurs. c) each of two alleles for a given trait segregate into different gametes. d) the number of chromosomes in a cell is always divisible by 2. e) an allele on one chromosome will always segregate from an allele on a different chromosome. 19. The “Sauce Bernaise” phenomenon illustrates: a) that culture can over-ride our biological instincts. b) prepared learning; we are quicker to attribute sickness to the food we have eaten recently rather than to any of the other possible causes. c) that rats have a “genetically coded hypothesis” that when they feel nauseous it likely results from the fact that they have consumed something unnatural. d) than in animals’ natural environment, electric shock is unlikely to occur in close proximity to loud noises and/or flashes of light. e) All of the above are true. 20. Basal metabolic rate: a) is a measure of the minimal energy used to keep your body functioning. b) is usually unrelated to how active an individual is. c) varies based on gender, height, and weight. d) All of the above are correct. e) Only a) and b) are correct. 5 21. “Revealed preference” describes: a) the idea that the most accurate way to determine an individual’s behavioral preferences is to ask them in an interview setting. b) the idea that the most accurate way to determine an individual’s behavioral preferences is to analyze that person’s actual behavior. c) the idea that the most accurate way to determine an individual’s behavioral preferences is to ask them in an anonymous questionnaire. d) the phenomenon by which an individual determines their preference through introspection. e) the idea that the most accurate way to determine an individual’s behavioral preferences is to ask them in repeated interviews. 22. Which of the following best exemplifies the naturalistic fallacy? a) If giraffes with longer necks have higher RS, there will be an increase in the average length of giraffes’ necks within the population over the course of several generations. b) Because extinction is not a naturally-occurring process, humans should make every possible effort to stop it from occurring. c) Infanticide is commonly found in nature and therefore should be tolerated in humans. d) Humans are the pinnacle of evolutionary progress. e) Men and women should be treated equally even if they have different innate behavioral tendencies and abilities. 23. Individuals that have the same genotype for a given trait: a) can have different phenotypes for that trait. b) must be identical twins. c) also have the same fitness. d) must have the same genome. e) have homozygous alleles for the trait. 24. Antibiotics are good for getting rid of a sinus infection. Based on your understanding of digestion, which of the following is another potential effect of taking antibiotics? a) You will experience less gastrointestinal gas than usual when you eat a bean and cheese burrito. b) Your gut will not be able to emulsify fats as efficiently. c) Lactose intolerant individuals will experience additional gastrointestinal pain. d) A bagel will take longer to become sweet when you chew it in your mouth for a long time. e) Proteins will not denature as efficiently in your stomach. 25. Compared to the nervous system, the endocrine system: a) is responsible for focused, single cell delivery of messages. b) is responsible for quick signaling. c) is usually involved in sensing the environment. d) controls rapid movement. e) is responsible for long-term regulation. 6 26. A group of researchers is trying to determine whether 500mg of caffeine a day can improve overall mood in women who suffer from depression. Which of the following groups would be the best to obtain research participants from? a) 500 men and women, randomly selected, who suffer from depression b) 500 women, randomly selected c) 500 women, ages 18-20, randomly selected, who suffer from depression d) 500 women of various ages, randomly selected, who suffer from depression e) 500 women of various ages, randomly selected 27. Snake venom is a mixture of toxic proteins. If you “milked” a snake’s venom into a glass and drank it, would it definitely harm you? Why or why not? a) It wouldn’t necessarily harm you. Because snake venom is a mixture of proteins, they are broken down by the stomach acids and enzymes of the digestive system. Snake venom must enter the bloodstream to cause ill effects. b) Yes, it will definitely harm you because venom contains neurotoxins. c) It wouldn’t necessarily harm you because saliva breaks down the toxic components in it. d) Yes, it will definitely harm you because venom contains lethal counts of virus particles. e) Yes, it will definitely harm you because venom contains lethal counts of toxic bacteria. 28. Anecdotal evidence: a) tends to be more reliable than data based on observations of large numbers of diverse individuals. b) is often the only way to prove important causal links between two phenomena. c) can appear to reveal links between two phenomena that do not actually exist. d) is a more efficient method for understanding the world becuase people tell what they saw. e) is a necessary part of the scientific method. 29. Puffer fish can be toxic to eat because they contain tetrodotoxin, a poison that blocks voltage-gated sodium channels. If you consumed this toxin, what effect would this have on motor neurons? a) It would prevent the occurrence of action potentials. b) It would induce apoptosis, a programmed cell death. c) It would completely block the release of neurotransmitters. d) It would cause an immediate release of neurotransmitters. e) It would cause sustained contraction of muscles. 30. Human babies show a greater fear response to snakes than to guns because: a) throughout most of our evolutionary history, guns have caused less mortality than snakes. b) in the United States today, snakes cause more deaths than guns. c) natural selection can produce fear responses only toward living organisms. d) although they are born with a blank slate, babies are taught to fear snakes more than guns. e) fear of guns would reduce infant mortality less than fear of snakes. 7 31. (14 pts) Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters (including serotonin and dopamine) in the synapse. Describe normal synaptic functioning and how the class of drugs that are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (“MAO-inhibitors) alters it. What behavioral/emotional effect would you expect in a person taking MAO-inhibitors? normal synaptic function: neurotransmitter is activated by the electrical impulse or action potential that is carried throughout the neuron and then from this the action potential will reach the terminal button which will then release the neurotransmitters into the synapse to bind with the dendrites of another neuron or cause the muscle to contract. MOA-inhibitors are anti depressants that block dopamine and seratonin. so basically it stops the release of the neurotransmitters. Causing the individual to not be happy. so an idivid. who doesnt get the right amount will seek drugs. so we can expect them to do dangerous or risky things to obtain the sensation or release of more dopamine and serotonin. 8 32. (14 pts) When it comes to happiness in humans, why is the rate and direction of change in a person’s circumstances more important than the circumstances themselves? How does this relate to material acquisitions? When it comes to happiness in humans, the rate and direction of change in a person’s circumstance is more important than the circumstance itself because one can be placed in the same circumstance but have a significantly different rate and direction of change. for example if two people win the lottery. they both could have 33. (14 pts) From an evolutionary perspective, human males and females have different vulnerabilities when making mating decisions? Why? In your answer be sure to describe these vulnerabilities and when they occur. Males and females have different vulnerabilities when making mating decisions because parental investment is a big factor of the success of the child. Since the mother is responsible for gestation and lactation they are more vulnerber… 9 34. (14 pts) Describe the interplay between culture and biology and the ways it is illustrated by the fundamental reproductive equation (and the breakdown of that equation). culturally we’ve gone beyond the biology. we’ve let culture shape what we do. culture tells us to ignore the biological impulses. saving food now and waiting to have a baby instead of having babies when we’re ready biologically ready. EEA stands for environment of evolutionary adaptedness. *the culture quickly changes the word and it is too quick for our biological instincts to adapt and b/c of this culture and technology have made us not depend on our instincts to be the deciding factors in our reproductive success. ex: food distribution birth control daycare hard to be a teen firearm-reduce need for strength army fights our battles money reduces reliance on others *equation: sex = preggo = preggo = babies = babies = child/maternal care = loss of female economic opportunity which = a loss of female political power. now we can stop sex = preggo. contraceptives. abortion can make preggo not = babies and day care. culture can free us from biological constraints and make equality possible 10 35. (14 pts) In the industrialized world, it can be hard to be a teenager. Why? How is this related to our environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA)? Describe a problem experienced by individuals of non-human species that has its roots in the same cause. ignore bodily desires b/c our current environment says that the fundamental reproductive equation will “ruin” our lives. it is not culturally accepted 11 36. e x (15 pts) a) Male-female size dimorphism is considered a good predictor of a population’s mating system. Why? In your answer use specific examples and discuss the meaning and significance of variance in reproductive success. Dimorphism: the existence of two diff. forms ( color/size) of a species especially in the same pop. in other words it is when there are differences in appearance between sexes. It is a good predictor of a population’s mating system because The more unequal the investment, the greater the dimorphism. (choosiness leads to competition. could be the whole chimp thing. the bigger the balls the higher the variance in reproductive success. (polygymy: one male has multiple female partners ) if they have big testes like the chimps then it shows that the males have more sexual partners. whereas the gorillas have smaller testes because they females choose only one mate. b) Would you expect greater male-female size dimorphi...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture