FND 016 Nutrition, Health And HIV And Aids - KENYATTA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF OPEN LEARNING FND 016:NUTRITION HEALTH AND HIV\/AIDS JUDITH N WAUDO

FND 016 Nutrition, Health And HIV And Aids - KENYATTA...

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KENYATTA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF OPEN LEARNING FND 016:NUTRITION, HEALTH AND HIV/AIDS JUDITH N. WAUDO DEPARTMENT OF FOODS, NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
Table of Contents Page List Of Tables And Figures .............................................................................................. 5 Acronyms And Abbreviations .......................................................................................... 5 Definitions ........................................................................................................................ 7 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 8 Lesson 1 ......................................................................................................................... 9 Nutrition And Infection; Health And Disease .................................................................. 9 Introduction: ..................................................................................................................... 9 Objectives ......................................................................................................................... 9 Nutrition And Infection; Health And Disease .................................................................. 9 Effects Of Infection On Nutritional Status ..................................................................... 12 Lesson 2 ......................................................................................................................... 16 Nutrition, Nutritional Indicators And Nutritional .......................................................... 16 Status .............................................................................................................................. 16 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 16 Content ........................................................................................................................... 16 Nutrition, Indicators Of Nutrition And Nutrition Status ................................................ 17 Indicators Of Nutrition ................................................................................................... 17 Nutritional Status ............................................................................................................ 18 Causes Of Malnutrition .................................................................................................. 20 How Maternal And Child Nutrition Are Linked ............................................................ 22 Assessment Of Trends In Nutrition ................................................................................ 23 Recommended Dietary Allowances ............................................................................... 23 Lesson 3 ......................................................................................................................... 28 Health Status And Indicators Of Health ......................................................................... 28 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 28 Health Goals ................................................................................................................... 28 Health Status Of Children And Women In Kenya ......................................................... 29 Basic Health Indicators ................................................................................................... 29 Clinical Indicators Of Health .......................................................................................... 30 Causes Of Maternal Mortality In Kenya ....................................................................... 33 Hypertensive Disorders, And Maternal Infections ......................................................... 33 Morbidity ........................................................................................................................ 34 Health Indicators 2001 ................................................................................................... 34 Health Factors And Their Impact On Nutrition .............................................................. 35 Programmes To Address Conditions And Diseases ....................................................... 36 Cdd/Ari Programme ....................................................................................................... 37 Expanded Programme On Immunization (Epi) .............................................................. 37 Malaria Control Programme ........................................................................................... 37 Bamako Initiative (B1) ................................................................................................... 38 Safe Motherhood Initiative ............................................................................................. 38 Lesson 4 ......................................................................................................................... 40 The Relationship Between Hiv/Aids And ...................................................................... 40 Malnutrition .................................................................................................................... 40 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 40 2
The Relationship Between Hiv/Aids And Malnutrition ................................................. 41 The Clinical Context ....................................................................................................... 41 Hiv/Aids And The Immune System ............................................................................... 41 The Social Context ......................................................................................................... 42 Relationship Between Infection, Nutrition And Immune Function .............................. 43 Weight Loss And Wasting Hiv/Aids .............................................................................. 45 Carbohydrates ................................................................................................................. 47 Lesson 5 ......................................................................................................................... 49 The Role Of Micronutrients In Hiv/Aids Infections ...................................................... 49 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 49 The Role Of Micronutrients In Hiv Infections ............................................................... 49 Micronutrient And Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv ........................................... 54 The Possible Role Of Micronutrients In Hiv Infection .................................................. 55 Hiv Progression .............................................................................................................. 56 Lesson 6 ........................................................................................................................ 58 Hiv/Aids And Food Security .......................................................................................... 58 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 58 Hiv/Aids And Food Security .......................................................................................... 58 The Vicious Cycle: Hiv/Aids And Malnutrition ............................................................ 60 Impact Of Hiv/Aids On Agriculture And Other Livelihoods ......................................... 60 Possible Impacts Of Hiv/Aids On Agriculture Dependent Households ......................... 61 What Can Be Done ......................................................................................................... 62 Major Challenges In Hiv/Aids And Food Security ........................................................ 62 Lesson 7 ........................................................................................................................ 65 Infant Feeding And Hiv/Aids ......................................................................................... 65 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 65 Hiv And Infant Feeding .................................................................................................. 66 Overview: Mother-To-Child Transmission .................................................................... 68 Women’s Right To Breastfeeding Vs Infants’ Right To Be Breastfed .......................... 69 Factors Increasing The Risk Of Transmission ............................................................... 71 Strategies To Prevent And Reduce Mtct ........................................................................ 72 Infant Feeding Options ................................................................................................... 73 Feeding Options For Hiv-Positive Mothers ................................................................... 75 Birth To Six Months ....................................................................................................... 75 Expressed And Heat-Treated Breast Milk ...................................................................... 79 Wet-Nursing ................................................................................................................... 81 Unsuitable Breast-Milk Substitutes ................................................................................ 81 Six Months To Two Years ............................................................................................. 82 Preparing And Giving Feeds .......................................................................................... 83 Hygienic Preparation ...................................................................................................... 83 Correct Mixing ............................................................................................................... 84 Feeding Method .............................................................................................................. 84 Lesson 8 ......................................................................................................................... 88 Hiv And Nutrition Prevention Strategy .......................................................................... 88 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 88 Hiv/Aids Prevention Strategies ...................................................................................... 89 Unicef’s Priorities To Fight Hiv/Aids In 2002 – 2005 Period Include The Following:. 89

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