Origins of War Notes - Origins of War Notes First World War...

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Origins of War Notes First World War Before the war (late 1800s) hope, enlightenment 4 empires were destroyed. -aus-hungary, ottoman empire, Weimer Republic, Romanov Dynasty Hurt Europe in terms of economics, democracy (instead communism, totalitarianism), and led to riseof U.S. and Russia Concert of Europe-Vienna 1815 5 Powers: Prussia, Russia, Austria, France- balance power Unification of Italy 1859-61 Unification Germany 1871 Defeat Denmark, Austria, france Germany Budesrat-upper leg. Chamber- delegates appointed by rulers of 25 states Prussia most important state, controlled budesrat and kind controlled Prussia Reichstag-lower house-elected by people-little power just budget Kaiser appoint Chancellor –deal w/ military and foreign affairs France 1875-1940 Third Republic National Assembly Chamber- deputies-voted in 4 yrs Senate – elected indirectly- 9 yrs The two met to elect President -7 yrs –figurehead
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Real exec. Power- Cabinet of ministries-made up of party coalitions 1840-1914 43 governments, 26 Prime ministers so policies difficult to sustain Concerns- attack by germany (more germans than Frenchmen), Germany bigger industry boom (france more agriculture and foreign investment), Germans interest in Africa (sometimes) Great Britain Government Constitutional monarchy –increasingly democratic –true exec branch- Cabinet-truly chosen by majority party in house of commons. Cabinet led by Prime minister of party’s choosing – Cabinet introduce legislation,, appoint officials-could dissolve Parliament. House of Commons more dominant-elected b y pop. Vote-6 yr terms By 1909 House of lords not loner right to delay/block legislation passed in Commons Both major parties in parliament (lib. Vs. cons) led by wealthy Foreign minister- tons autonomy – Parliament needed to approve only those treaties that involved financial commitments or the cession of territory in peacetime Economy 1870 Britain led world in econ. And Indus. Power. 1860-53% worlds iron, 50% coal and lignite. Trade 1/5 world commerce, 2/5 of trade in manufacturing Between1870-75 investments over seas reached 75 million pounds annually Became more dependent on imports Largest empire in history of the world. Import tons natural resources Trade w. colonies All dependant on peace/open seas
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Smallest army in Europe, spend 2-3 % gdp –rely on balance of power, and navy Interested in Isolationism Trouble Economy decline 1885-1913 other countries surpass Britain in industrial production growth 1906 U.S. produce more coal, U.S. and Germ. More steel. Intensified colonial competition create tension Concern for security of india-russians upset (expanding south) Want control of suez canal, and water through Gibraltar and Mediterranean –france mad Interest in China –conflict Russia, U.S. Japand, France, Germany West Indies, South America- U.S Railroad “cape to cairo”-french, germans in 1880s Russia 1871- last of Europe’s Absolute monarchies.
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