origins of War Notes 3 - The Origins of War 3 End or...

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The Origins of War 3 End or WWI-Russia left allies in 1918 but U.S. entered to keep balance-new troops while germans exhausted- Germans launch all or nothing attack on Western front but collapse of armies in Balkans made them seek peace. Germans wanted “peace without victors”- according to Wilson’s 14 pts plan. –at this point german people unaware that their army had been defeated badly (so later felt tricked) But British and France wanted Germany to pay: Practical principles they acted upon: French security- france wanted Rhineland but instead got land west of rhine and 50km east demilitized and also got Alsace-Lorraine, ad right to coal mines for 15 yrs. no one to help w/ protection. Even Poland, Rumania, Chec. Yugoslacia etc.. meant ot check germany in east depended on france. scared by spread of bolshevism (communism) Wilson’s Idealism (fell to pieces): Self Determination-czechoslovakia included several million germans. Austria not allowed to join w/ Germany. Not practical because ethnic populations rarely conform to geographic and economic lines. Austria-Hungarian collapse for example split raw materials for manufacturing areas and producers from markets by new boundaries and tariff walls. New Balkans states suspicious and competing desires. League of Nations- body of states for collective security, to submit conflicts to League Council- but no armed forces to enforce anything. Original plans excluded Germany and Soviets. League supervised the turning of ottoman terratories into mandates (Palestine and Iraq-britain, Syria and Lebanon-french). German territories divided up. Peace without Victors- Germany to take blame for war-pay full costs 5 bill. Annually till 1921 when full cost calculated and would be paid over 30 yrs. Germans-very unhappy-didn’t feel guilty, The Weimer Republic (formed by Social Democrats and Catholic Center) unpopular with people. Seen as imposition of enemy. Germans lost 25000 sq. miles territory-even more overseas. Lost tins of resources- 65% iron ore, 45% coal, and 57% lead. Soon much criticism of Treaty of Versaille grew even among victors- at that point didn’t see germany as responsible- thought war was accidental and appeasement was right answer- people called for isolationism and withdrawel. U.S. didn’t back treaty and out of league of nations, thus not bound to defend France. B/c U.S. out Britain didn’t have to either so france left to protect itself. Despite complaints germans gained high level of prosperity till Great Depression in 30s. 1921- amount Germans had to pay was 6% annual national income. 3.3 in 1924 and 2.6 in 1929. Never paid in full and canceled in 1932. Also 1919-1923 got windfall from devaluation of foreign-owed mark-denominated assets. Also, terms of treaty not harsh compared to Germany treat w/ france in 1871 and Russia in 1918
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Big problems: contradictions in idealism and realism-hypocracy cause anger-germans also never agreed to defeat and guilt so argued the peace was hypocritical and illegitimate.
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