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Lecture 16 Study Questions1. What are some criticisms of modernism made by Aldo Rossi? What does he mean by type?-rejected naive functionalism-wanted to account for historical longevity of buildings type-fundamental, abstract idea-something permanent2. What basic argument does Robert Venturi make in Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture?-for buildings that work at multiple scales and suggest various meanings-that the various elements of the building express different functions and work at different scales3. In what ways can the work of Michael Graves be seen as postmodern?decorative nature of the design violated the implicit standards of modernist buildings such as the post-war, glass-and-metal office towers.Postmodern references to historical forms and elements; scale and function are manipulated.
4. In what ways do the designs of Peter Eisenman and Bernard Tschumi challenge conventions of architecture? What “deconstructivist” elements or principles do they have?- many different angles - different pieces placed together to make up a "whole.“ constituent elements were disassembled and the reassembled in a different way.decompositional, fragmented, multiplying form.
PostmodernismArchitectural postmodernism is by nature not a unified set of developments, but in general postmodernist architects sought to address what they saw as a thinness of meaning in most modernist architecture. Although not rejecting all aspects of modernism, these designers sought to re-introduce history, context, ornamentation, and symbol. Rather than the avowed purity of mythical “international style,” these architects attempted to create buildings that were more complex and more diverse.
I. Aldo Rossi (1931-1997)Born in Milan, Aldo Rossi believed in the vitality of cities and rejected many principles of modern architecture. His book The Architecture of the Citywas a landmark publication that emphasized the role of history, memory, and architectural type.Rossi rejected what he called “naïve functionalism” in favor of an approach that accounted for the historical longevity of buildings and the complexity of cities.Rossi and the critique of “naïve functionalism”Rossi argues that the city cannot be understood in terms of mere function. Living in Milan and other cities with long histories, he sees cities as collective artifacts, composed of smaller elements (buildings) that each have their own history. If function were the primary determinant of urban form meaning, then there would be continuity.The Theater of Marcellus, for instance, is 2000 years old and has had many functions; in recent centuries it has served as housing.
Rossi and the concept of typeFor Rossi, typemean not a simple functional or programmatic type (e.g. a hospital or school), but something more fundamental.