Chapter 14 Notes - BIO3 Chapter 14 15 1 Mendel what influences led better work 1 Blood Typing 2 DNA Discover GENETICS Until 20th century many biologists

Chapter 14 Notes - BIO3 Chapter 14 15 1 Mendel what...

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BIO3 – Chapter 14 & 15 1 Mendel – what influences led better work 1 Blood Typing – 2 DNA & Discover GENETICS Until 20 th century many biologists believed ~ characteristics acquired during lifetime passed on to next generation “Blending” hypothesis (incorrect) characteristics of both parents blended in offspring if true, over time populations completely mixed o blue & yellow individuals mated – over time “Particulate” inheritance (correct) unique traits can be passed from one generation to the next genes – discrete, heritable units allow retention of separate identities in offspring modern genetics began wit h Gregor Mendel’s pea plant experiments… documenting particulate mechanism of inheritance Mendel’s experimental & quantitative approach to genetics grew up on Czech farm, entered monastery attended university of Vienna 1851-1853 influenced by physicist, encouraged experimentation & application of math studied with a botanist, developed Mendel’s interest in causes of plant variation later, mendel taught at brunn modern school & lived in local monastery monks at monastery long tradition of plant breeding, including peas ~1857 Medel began breeding garden peas to study inheritance Advantages for studying genetics with peas pea plants – many varieties with distinct heritable features (characters) with different variants (traits) How did Mendel study genetics with peas? Mendel controlled which plants mated with which o each pea plant has: male (stamens) & female (carpal) sexual organs normally pea plants self-fertizlize o mendel moved polled from one plat to another to cross-pollinate mendel cross-pollinated (hybridize) 2 contrasting true breeding pea varities o true breeding parents – P generation o hybrid offspring – F1 generation mendel allowed f1 hybrids to self pollinate and produce f2 generation – 2 nd generation data reveled 2 fundamental principles of heredity: law of segregation and law of independent assortment Law of Segregation

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