Data_Transmission - Basic Concepts in Data Transmission...

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A.Zahid-EE450 1 Basic Concepts in Data Transmission EE450: Introduction to Computer Networks Professor A. Zahid
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A.Zahid-EE450 2 Data and Signals Data is an entity that convey information Analog Continuous values within some interval e.g. sound, video Digital Discrete values e.g. text, integers Signals are electrical or electromagnetic or optical representations of data
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A.Zahid-EE450 3 Continuous and Discrete Signals
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A.Zahid-EE450 4 Periodic Signals “Pattern repeated over time”
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A.Zahid-EE450 5 Parameters of a Periodic Signal Peak Amplitude (A) – Maximum strength of signal – Measured in volts or amps Frequency (f) – Rate of change of signal – Measured in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second – The Period of a periodic signal, T = 1/f Phase ( φ ) – Relative position in time
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A.Zahid-EE450 6 Examples
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A.Zahid-EE450 7 Frequency Domain Concepts Any arbitrary signal can be thought as a combination of many (may be infinite) components with each component being a sinusoidal waveform of given amplitude, frequency and phase Example shows the addition of two sinusoids
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A.Zahid-EE450 8 Time vs. Frequency Domains t(sec) x(t) 1 -X/2 0 X/2 Time Domain Frequency Domain
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A.Zahid-EE450 9 Spectrum & Bandwidth Spectrum of the Signal – range of frequencies contained in signal Bandwidth of the Signal – width of spectrum
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