GEOGexam2terms - Alli Neuman Geography100/MW/3-415 Key...

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Alli Neuman Geography100/MW/3-415 Key Terms List Culture hearth—an area of historical cultural innovation. Southwest Asia and North Africa have witnessed many new cultural ideas that subsequently diffused widely to other portions of the world. OPEC—Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, many key members are found within the region and the countries greatly influence global prices and production levels for petroleum. It also has increased the regions strategic importance adding to many traditional cultural tensions. Islamic Fundamentalism—a movement within both the Shiite and Sunni Muslim traditions to return to a more conservative, religious-based society and state. Often associated with a rejection of Western culture and with political aim to merge civic and religious authority. Islamism—the political movement within Islam. It challenges the encroachment of global popular culture and blames colonial, imperial, and Western elements for many of the region’s political, economic, and social problems. Islamists resent the role they claim the West has played in creating poverty in their world. Many advocate merging civil and religious authority and rejecting many characteristics of modern, Western-style consumer culture. Water—the availability of water in this largely dry portion of the world has shaped both the physical and human geographies of the region. Biologically the regions plants and animals adapt to the aridity of long dry seasons and short unpredictable rainy periods. Human settlement is greatly linked to water also. Deforestation and Overgrazing—Deforestation is an ancient problem in southwest asia and north Africa. Humid elevated lands that bordered the Mediterranean supported forests. Lebanon had cedar woodlands. Browsing by sheep and goats has been blamed for much of the region’s forest lost. Deforestation has resulted in a long, slow deterioration of the region’s water supplies and in accelerated soil erosion. Several governments have launched reforestation drives and forest preservation efforts. Israel and Syria have expanded their forested lands since the 1980’s, and now more than 5 percent of Lebanon’s total area is now part of the Chouf Cedar Reserve. Salinization—the buildup of toxic salts in the soil, is another ancient environmental issue in a region where irrigation has been practices for centuries. Accumulation of salt in the topsoil is a common problem wherever desert lands are subjected to extensive irrigation. Managing Water—Qanat, fossil water Residents of the region are continually challenged by the problems related to managing water. The people of the region modify drainage systems and water flows constantly. The Iranian Qanat System of tapping into groundwater through a series of gently sloping tunnels was widely replicated on the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa. Farmers directed the underground flow to fields and villages where it could be efficiently utilized. The Aswan High Dam along the Nile
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2008 for the course GEOG 100 taught by Professor Herlihy during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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GEOGexam2terms - Alli Neuman Geography100/MW/3-415 Key...

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