rec notes 2

rec notes 2 - Analog Signals to Digital Data Take snapshots...

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Analog Signals to Digital Data Take snapshots of the analog signal at regular intervals Measure the exact voltage at that moment Snapshot voltage is converted into a binary number (“word”) o Quantization – converting an analog voltage to a binary number o 101100011011001 Time Domain vs Level Domain Describe sound (analog audio) using frequency and amplitude These two descriptions translate into digital audio as sampling and quantization Time Level Analog Frequency Amplitude Digital Sampling Quantization Sampling Rates Sampling Rate: the number of samples taken per second Current standards o 32 kHz Broadcast Radio speech o 44.1 kHz Consumer CD o 48 kHz Audio for Video o 88.2 kHz New Professional to CD o 96 kHz New Professional o 192 kHz DVD audio In an analog recording the entire wave/signal is recorded The “sampling rate” of analog audio is infinite because analog is continuous In digital, only the samples are recorded Sampling rate and audio fidelity are directly related Digital resolution of higher frequencies is not as good as lower frequencies o 1 kHz wave is sampled 44.1 times per cycle o 100 Hz wave is sampled 441 times per cycle Nyquist Theorem fs = 2v A wave must be sampled at least twice during a cycle to calculate the frequency Sampling rate must be at least twice as fast as the highest frequency to be reproduced Nyquist sampling rate is 40kHz because human hearing goes to 20kHz
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rec notes 2 - Analog Signals to Digital Data Take snapshots...

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