rec notes - MUIN 275 Recording Sound and Hearing Properties...

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MUIN 275 Recording Sound and Hearing Properties of Sound 0. Sound production is based upon the principles of harmonic motion 0. Elastic restoring force 1. Like an object is moved about a point of equilibrium. 2. The force acting to restore the object is proportional to its displacement. Sound Pressure Waves 1. Air as a medium: 3. Composed of molecules in constant motion 4. Produces a constant pressure in all directions. 5. Air molecules always attempt to return to a state of static/constant pressure. 2. Sound propagation: 6. Sound displaces adjacent air molecules so that they are alternatively pushed closer together and further apart. 7. Compression: areas of high pressure where the air molecules are pushed together. 8. Rarefaction: areas of low pressure where the air molecules are pushed apart. 0. Wave characteristics: 9. Amplitude 0. The relative intensity of a sound pressure wave usually described in terms of loudness or softness. 1. The greater the intensity, the more molecules are displaced resulting in the greater height and depth of a sound wave. Wave Characteristics 3. Velocity: 10. Sound travels through air at 1130 ft/sec at 70-degrees Fahrenheit at sea level. 0. 344 meters 1. 770 mph 11. The speed of sound changes 1.1 feet/sec for every degree change of temperature. 4. Frequency: 12. Pitch, the relative high or low of a musical note is measured by frequency. 13. Measured in vibrations or cycles/second 14. The unit of measurement is the Hertz abbreviated Hz. 15. Musicians tune to A 440, this pitch causes your eardrums to vibrate 440 times per second 5. Frequency: 16. The frequency range of the human ear is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
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2. This could also refer to an instrument or piece of electronic equipment. 3. Synonymous with the term Bandwidth. 4. High frequencies cycle more times per second than low. 6. The frequency range of some actual instruments… 17. Guitar – 82 to approx. 2100 Hz 18. Piano – 27 to 4186 Hz 19. Tuba – 41 to 440 Hz 20. Flute – 261 to 1975 Hz 21. All of these instruments produce overtones well in excess of 5 kHz. 1. Sound is vibrations 2. Wavelength 22. The length of one complete cycle of a wave. 23. Determined by simple equation W = V/F. 24. Frequency and wavelength change inversely with respect to each other. 2. The lower the frequency the longer the wavelength. 3. The higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength. 7. What’s the wavelength of 1000 Hz? 25. W = 1130/1000 = 1.13 feet or 13.56 inches. 3. 440 Hz? 26. W = 1130/440 = 2.56 feet 27. 220 Hz = 5.13 feet 28. 110 Hz = 10.26 feet 29. 55 Hz = 20.52 feet 8. Complex waves 30. Most sounds consist of several different frequencies. The combination of which effect the loudness and tone color of a voice or instrument. 31. The combination of two or more waves is simply the sum of amplitudes at each time point. Several outcomes are possible… 5. Reinforcement 6. Interference/cancellation 7. Yield a wave with a different pattern Wave Characteristics: (Demonstration) 4. Vibrations of a bass guitar string 5. Phase 32. The progression of a wave through one cycle, which can be represented as the movement through one 360-degree circle.
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  • Summer '07
  • Cunningham
  • Frequency, Microphone

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